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SECTION 1-Course Design  SECTION 1-Course Design 
The following general principles of course design list the criteria, responsibilities and restrictions governing course designers as the architects of the sport of IPSC shooting.  The following general principles of course design list the criteria, responsibilities and restrictions governing course designers as the architects of the sport of IPSC shooting. 
1.1 General Principles  1.1 General Principles 
1.1.1 Safety-IPSC competitions must be designed, constructed and conducted with due consideration to safety.  1.1.1 Safety-IPSC competitions must be designed, constructed and conducted with due consideration to safety. 
1.1.2 Quality-The value of IPSC shooting competition is determined by the quality of the challenge presented in the course design. Courses of fire shall be designed primarily to test a competitor's IPSC shooting skills, and not their physical strength or gymnastic abilities.  1.1.2 Quality-The value of IPSC shooting competition is determined by the quality of the challenge presented in the course design. Courses of fire shall be designed primarily to test a competitor's IPSC shooting skills, and not their physical strength or gymnastic abilities. 
1.1.3 Balance-Accuracy, power and speed are equivalent elements of IPSC shooting, and are expressed in the Latin words "Diligentia, Vis, Celeritas" ("DVC"). A properly balanced course of fire will depend largely upon the nature of the challenges presented therein, however courses shall be designed, and IPSC shooting competitions shall be conducted in such a way, as to evaluate these elements equally.  1.1.3 Balance-Accuracy, power and speed are equivalent elements of IPSC shooting, and are expressed in the Latin words "Diligentia, Vis, Celeritas" ("DVC"). A properly balanced course of fire will depend largely upon the nature of the challenges presented therein, however courses shall be designed, and IPSC shooting competitions shall be conducted in such a way, as to evaluate these elements equally. 
1.1.4 Diversity-IPSC shooting challenges shall be diverse. While it is not necessary to construct new courses for each competition, no single course shall be repeated to allow its use to be considered a definitive measure of IPSC shooting skills.  1.1.4 Diversity-IPSC shooting challenges shall be diverse. While it is not necessary to construct new courses for each competition, no single course shall be repeated to allow its use to be considered a definitive measure of IPSC shooting skills. 
1.1.5 Freestyle-IPSC competition is freestyle. With the exception of Standard Exercises, a course of fire may not specify a shooting position or stance. However, conditions may be created and constructed to compel a competitor into positions or stances required by stage design. These conditions may include barriers and other physical limitations. Competitors must be permitted to solve the challenge presented in a freestyle manner and must always be allowed to shoot the targets on an "as and when visible" basis. Mandatory reloads may not be specified except in Standard Exercises and Shoot-offs. Level I and Level II competitions and Classifiers are not required to comply strictly with the freestyle requirements, or the mandatory reload regulation, however, mandatory reloads may never be required in Long Courses. A course of fire may specify strong hand or weak hand. The specified hand must be used exclusively from the point stipulated for the remainder of the stage or string.  1.1.5 Freestyle-IPSC competition is freestyle. With the exception of Standard Exercises, a course of fire may not specify a shooting position or stance. However, conditions may be created and constructed to compel a competitor into positions or stances required by stage design. These conditions may include barriers and other physical limitations. Competitors must be permitted to solve the challenge presented in a freestyle manner and must always be allowed to shoot the targets on an "as and when visible" basis. Mandatory reloads may not be specified except in Standard Exercises and Shoot-offs. Level I and Level II competitions and Classifiers are not required to comply strictly with the freestyle requirements, or the mandatory reload regulation, however, mandatory reloads may never be required in Long Courses. A course of fire may specify strong hand or weak hand. The specified hand must be used exclusively from the point stipulated for the remainder of the stage or string. 
1.1.6 Difficulty-IPSC shooting competitions present varied degrees of difficulty. No shooting challenge or time limit may be protested as being prohibitive. This does not apply to non-shooting challenges. Specific requirements for non-shooting challenges should reasonably allow for differences in competitor's height and physical build.  1.1.6 Difficulty-IPSC shooting competitions present varied degrees of difficulty. No shooting challenge or time limit may be protested as being prohibitive. This does not apply to non-shooting challenges. Specific requirements for non-shooting challenges should reasonably allow for differences in competitor's height and physical build. 
1.1.7 Challenge-IPSC competitions recognise the difficulty of using full power firearms in dynamic shooting, and shall always employ a minimum calibre and power level to be attained by all competitors to reflect this challenge.  1.1.7 Challenge-IPSC competitions recognise the difficulty of using full power firearms in dynamic shooting, and shall always employ a minimum calibre and power level to be attained by all competitors to reflect this challenge. 
1.2 Types of Courses  1.2 Types of Courses 
IPSC shooting competitions may contain the following types of courses of fire:  IPSC shooting competitions may contain the following types of courses of fire: 
1.2.1 Principal Courses of Fire:  1.2.1 Principal Courses of Fire: 
1.2.1.1 "Short Courses" shall not require more than 9 rounds to complete and no more than 2 shooting positions.  1.2.1.1 "Short Courses" shall not require more than 9 rounds to complete and no more than 2 shooting positions. 
1.2.1.2 "Medium Courses" shall not require more than 16 rounds to complete, or more than 3 shooting positions. Course design and construction shall not allow the opportunity for more than 9 scoring hits from any single position or view.  1.2.1.2 "Medium Courses" shall not require more than 16 rounds to complete, or more than 3 shooting positions. Course design and construction shall not require more than 9 scoring hits from any single position or view. Where more than 9 scoring hits are available from a single position or view, the additional targets must be available to be shot from another later position or view and they must present a more difficult shooting challenge if shot from the first position. Examples of a more difficult shot would be: longer distances and/or partial targets. Course designers shall not allow any competitor to eliminate a position or view in the course of fire by shooting all available targets at an earlier position or view. 
1.2.1.3 "Long Courses" shall not require more than 32 rounds to complete. Course design and construction shall not allow the opportunity for more than 9 scoring hits from any single position or view.  1.2.1.3 "Long Courses" shall not require more than 32 rounds to complete. Course design and construction shall not require more than 9 scoring hits from any single position or view. Where more than 9 scoring hits are available from a single position or view, the additional targets must be available to be shot from another later position or view and they must present a more difficult shooting challenge if shot from the first position. Examples of a more difficult shot would be: longer distances and/or partial targets. Course designers shall not allow any competitor to eliminate a position or view in the course of fire by shooting all available targets at an earlier position or view. 
1.2.1.4 The recommended balance for an IPSC competition is a ratio of 3 Short Courses to 2 Medium Courses to 1 Long Course.  1.2.1.4 The recommended balance for an IPSC competition is a ratio of 3 Short Courses to 2 Medium Courses to 1 Long Course. 
1.2.2 Supplementary Courses:  1.2.2 Supplementary Courses: 
1.2.2.1 "Standard Exercises" shall not require more than 24 rounds to complete, or more than 6 rounds for each component string or 12 rounds if a mandatory reload is specified. Mandatory reloads, shooting positions and stances may be specified. Standard Exercises may not be used in Level IV and higher competitions.  1.2.2.1 "Standard Exercises" shall not require more than 24 rounds to complete, or more than 6 rounds for each component string or 12 rounds if a mandatory reload is specified. Mandatory reloads, shooting positions and stances may be specified. Standard Exercises may not be used in Level IV and higher competitions. 
1.2.2.2 "Shoot-Off" shall not require more than 9 rounds to complete and shall require 1 mandatory reload.  1.2.2.2 "Shoot-Off" shall not require more than 9 rounds to complete and shall require 1 mandatory reload. 
1.3 IPSC Sanctioning  1.3 IPSC Sanctioning 
1.3.1 Course designers wishing to receive IPSC sanctioning shall comply with the general principles of course design and course construction as well as all other current IPSC rules and regulations. Courses of fire that do not comply with these requirements will not be sanctioned, and will not be publicized or announced as IPSC sanctioned competitions. Only computer scoring programs that have been approved by the local Regional Directorate may be used to score IPSC competitions.  1.3.1 Course designers wishing to receive IPSC sanctioning shall comply with the general principles of course design and course construction as well as all other current IPSC rules and regulations. Courses of fire that do not comply with these requirements will not be sanctioned, and will not be publicized or announced as IPSC sanctioned competitions. Only computer scoring programs that have been approved by the local Regional Directorate may be used to score IPSC competitions. 
1.3.2 The IPSC President, his delegate, or an officer of the confederation (in that order) may withdraw IPSC sanctioning from a competition. Such action may be taken at any time where, in his or their opinion, a match contravenes the purpose or spirit of the principles of course design or is in breach of any of the current IPSC rules or is likely to bring the sport of IPSC shooting into disrepute.  1.3.2 The IPSC President, his delegate, or an officer of the confederation (in that order) may withdraw IPSC sanctioning from a competition. Such action may be taken at any time where, in his or their opinion, a match contravenes the purpose or spirit of the principles of course design or is in breach of any of the current IPSC rules or is likely to bring the sport of IPSC shooting into disrepute. 
1.3.3 IPSC match levels are specified in Appendix A.  1.3.3 IPSC match levels are specified in Appendix A. 
1.3.4 IPSC requires international sanction for Level III and higher matches. Individual Regions shall structure procedures to ensure that Level I and II matches comply with IPSC regulations.  1.3.4 IPSC requires international sanction for Level III and higher matches. Individual Regions shall structure procedures to ensure that Level I and II matches comply with IPSC regulations. 
SECTION 2-Course Construction & Modification  SECTION 2-Course Construction & Modification 
The following general regulations of course construction list the criteria, responsibilities and restrictions applicable to courses of fire in IPSC competitions. Course designers, host organizations, and officials are governed by these regulations.  The following general regulations of course construction list the criteria, responsibilities and restrictions applicable to courses of fire in IPSC competitions. Course designers, host organizations, and officials are governed by these regulations. 
2.1 General Regulations  2.1 General Regulations 
2.1.1 Physical Construction-Safety considerations in the design, physical construction, and stated requirements for any course of fire are the responsibility of the host organization subject to the approval of the Range Master. Reasonable effort must be made to prevent injury to competitors, officials or spectators during the competition. Course design should prevent inadvertent unsafe actions wherever possible. Consideration must be given to the operation of any course of fire to provide suitable access for officials supervising the competitors.  2.1.1 Physical Construction-Safety considerations in the design, physical construction, and stated requirements for any course of fire are the responsibility of the host organization subject to the approval of the Range Master. Reasonable effort must be made to prevent injury to competitors, officials or spectators during the competition. Course design should prevent inadvertent unsafe actions wherever possible. Consideration must be given to the operation of any course of fire to provide suitable access for officials supervising the competitors. 
2.1.2 Safe Angles of Fire-Courses of fire shall always be constructed taking into account safe angles of fire Consideration must be given to safe target and frame construction and the angle of any possible ricochets. The physical dimensions and suitability of backstops and side berms shall be determined as part of the construction process.  2.1.2 Safe Angles of Fire-Courses of fire shall always be constructed taking into account safe angles of fire Consideration must be given to safe target and frame construction and the angle of any possible ricochets. The physical dimensions and suitability of backstops and side berms shall be determined as part of the construction process. 
2.1.3 Minimum Distances-Whenever metal targets are employed in a course of fire, precautions shall be taken to ensure that competitors and match officials maintain a minimum distance of 10 meters (33 feet) from them while they are being shot.  2.1.3 Minimum Distances-Whenever metal targets are employed in a course of fire, precautions shall be taken to ensure that competitors and match officials maintain a minimum distance of 10 meters (33 feet) from them while they are being shot. 
2.1.4 Impractical Behaviour-When a course is constructed to include target positions other than immediately downrange, organizers and officials must protect or restrict surrounding areas to which officials, spectators or competitors have access. Each competitor must be allowed to solve the competitive problem in their own way and must not be hindered by being forced to act in any manner which might cause unsafe action. Targets shall be arranged so that shooting at them on an "as and when visible" basis will not cause competitors to breach safe angles of fire. Competitors shall never be required to re-holster a handgun during the course of fire. A course of fire shall not require the competitor to draw the handgun with the weak hand.  2.1.4 Impractical Behavior-When a course is constructed to include target positions other than immediately downrange, organizers and officials must protect or restrict surrounding areas to which officials, spectators or competitors have access. Each competitor must be allowed to solve the competitive problem in their own way and must not be hindered by being forced to act in any manner which might cause unsafe action. Targets shall be arranged so that shooting at them on an "as and when visible" basis will not cause competitors to breach safe angles of fire. Competitors shall never be required to re-holster a handgun during the course of fire. A course of fire shall not require the competitor to draw the handgun with the weak hand. 
2.1.5 Range Surface-Where reasonably possible, the range surface shall be prepared or altered prior to the competition to provide adequate safety for competitors and officials. Consideration should be given to the results of inclement weather and competitor actions. Range officials may add gravel, sand or other materials to a deteriorated range surface for safety reasons. Competitors may not protest these range maintenance actions.  2.1.5 Range Surface-Where reasonably possible, the range surface shall be prepared or altered prior to the competition to provide adequate safety for competitors and officials. Consideration should be given to the results of inclement weather and competitor actions. Range officials may add gravel, sand or other materials to a deteriorated range surface for safety reasons. Competitors may not protest these range maintenance actions. 
2.1.6 Obstacles-Natural or created obstacles in a course of fire should reasonably allow for variations in competitors' height and physical build and should be constructed and employed to provide reasonable safety for all competitors, match officials, and spectators. Obstacles may be constructed to a maximum height of 2 meters (6.5 feet).  2.1.6 Obstacles-Natural or created obstacles in a course of fire should reasonably allow for variations in competitors' height and physical build and should be constructed and employed to provide reasonable safety for all competitors, match officials, and spectators. Obstacles may be constructed to a maximum height of 2 meters (6.5 feet). 
2.1.7 Common Firing Lines-Courses of fire where multiple competitors are required to fire simultaneously from a common firing line (e.g. Standard Exercises, Shoot-Off), shall provide a minimum of 1.5 meters (5 feet) of free space between each competitor.  2.1.7 Common Firing Lines-Courses of fire where multiple competitors are required to fire simultaneously from a common firing line (e.g. Standard Exercises, Shoot-Off), shall provide a minimum of 1.5 meters (5 feet) of free space between each competitor. 
2.1.8 Target Placement-Care must be taken with the physical placement of paper targets to prevent "shoot throughs".  2.1.8 Target Placement-Care must be taken with the physical placement of paper targets to prevent "shoot throughs". 
2.1.8.1 Target positions should be clearly marked on the target stands to ensure consistent location throughout the competition when targets are replaced. Target stands should be securely fixed in position or their positions should be clearly marked on the range surface to ensure consistent location throughout the entire competition. Furthermore, target types should be specified and identified on the target frames or stands prior to the start of the competition in order to make sure that scoring targets are not interchanged with non-scoring or penalty targets after the competition has commenced.  2.1.8.1 Target positions should be clearly marked on the target stands to ensure consistent location throughout the competition when targets are replaced. Target stands should be securely fixed in position or their positions should be clearly marked on the range surface to ensure consistent location throughout the entire competition. Furthermore, target types should be specified and identified on the target frames or stands prior to the start of the competition in order to make sure that scoring targets are not interchanged with non-scoring or penalty targets after the competition has commenced. 
2.1.8.2 Course design must prevent competitors from shooting at steel targets from closer than 10 meters (33 feet). Where possible, this should be done with physical barriers. If charge lines are used to limit the approach to steel targets, they must be placed at least 11 meters (36 feet) from the targets so that the competitor may inadvertently fault the line and still be outside the 10 meter (33 feet) safety limit.  2.1.8.2 Course design must prevent competitors from shooting at steel targets from closer than 10 meters (33 feet). Where possible, this should be done with physical barriers. If charge lines are used to limit the approach to steel targets, they must be placed at least 11 meters (36 feet) from the targets so that the competitor may inadvertently fault the line and still be outside the 10 meter (33 feet) safety limit. 
2.1.8.3 When IPSC Poppers are used in a course of fire, care should be taken to ensure that the location or foundation area is prepared to provide consistent operation throughout the competition.  2.1.8.3 When IPSC Poppers are used in a course of fire, care should be taken to ensure that the location or foundation area is prepared to provide consistent operation throughout the competition. 
  2.1.8.4 Paper targets shall not be presented at an angle greater than 90 degrees from the upright. 
2.1.9 Target Presentation-In many cases, targets are fixed to wooden uprights and cross members. It is recommended that when possible, target holders and stands should be cut back so that they do not extend past the upper and side borders. This results in an improved visual presentation. (See Appendix B)  2.1.9 Target Presentation-In many cases, targets are fixed to wooden uprights and cross members. It is recommended that when possible, target holders and stands should be cut back so that they do not extend past the upper and side borders. This results in an improved visual presentation. (See Appendix B) 
2.2 Course Construction Criteria  2.2 Course Construction Criteria 
During the construction of a course of fire, a variety of physical barriers may be used to restrict competitor movement and to provide additional competitive challenges as follows:  During the construction of a course of fire, a variety of physical barriers may be used to restrict competitor movement and to provide additional competitive challenges as follows: 
2.2.1 Charge Lines and Fault Lines-It is preferable to restrict competitor movement with physical barriers. However, the use of charge and fault lines is permitted as follows:  2.2.1 Charge Lines and Fault Lines-It is preferable to restrict competitor movement with physical barriers. However, the use of charge and fault lines is permitted as follows: 
2.2.1.1 Charge lines are used to restrict unreasonable movement by competitors toward or away from targets.  2.2.1.1 Charge lines are used to restrict unreasonable movement by competitors toward or away from targets. 
2.2.1.2 Fault lines are used to force the competitor to shoot at targets from behind physical barriers. They may be positioned at any angle extending to the rear of these barriers. Fault lines should be a minimum of 1 meter (3 feet) in length and unless otherwise stated in the stage briefing, they are deemed to extend to infinity.  2.2.1.2 Fault lines are used to force the competitor to shoot at targets from behind physical barriers. They may be positioned at any angle extending to the rear of these barriers. Fault lines should be a minimum of 1 meter (3 feet) in length and unless otherwise stated in the stage briefing, they are deemed to extend to infinity. 
2.2.1.3 Charge lines and fault lines should be constructed of wooden boards or other suitable material and should extend no more than 5 centimetres (2 inches) above ground level. This will provide both physical and visible references to the competitors to prevent inadvertent faulting of the line. Fault lines or charge lines shall be fixed firmly in place so as to ensure that they are equal for all competitors throughout the competition.  2.2.1.3 Charge lines and fault lines should be constructed of wooden boards or other suitable material and should rise at least 1 centimeter (3/8 inches) above ground level. This will provide both physical and visible references to competitors to prevent inadvertent faulting of the line. Fault lines or charge lines shall be fixed firmly in place so as to ensure they remain consistent throughout the competition. 
2.2.1.4 The introduction or modification of fault lines and charge lines after any competitors have completed the course of fire shall be permitted only for safety considerations and with the prior consent of the Range Master.  2.2.1.4 The introduction or modification of fault lines and charge lines after any competitors have completed the course of fire shall be permitted only for safety considerations and with the prior consent of the Range Master. 
2.2.2 Climbing Barriers-Courses of fire may include the use of barriers or major obstacles to be surmounted by competitors. Obstacles used in this way shall not exceed a height of 2 meters (6.5 feet). Obstacles over 1 meter (3 feet) in height shall be supplied with scaling aids to assist competitors and shall be constructed to provide for the competitor's safety in the following ways:  2.2.2 Climbing Barriers-Courses of fire may include the use of barriers or major obstacles to be surmounted by competitors. Obstacles used in this way shall not exceed a height of 2 meters (6.5 feet). Obstacles over 1 meter (3 feet) in height shall be supplied with scaling aids to assist competitors and shall be constructed to provide for the competitor's safety in the following ways: 
2.2.2.1 Obstacles shall be firmly anchored and braced to provide adequate support when in use.  2.2.2.1 Obstacles shall be firmly anchored and braced to provide adequate support when in use. 
Wherever possible, unduly sharp or rough surfaces shall be removed to reduce the possibility of injury to competitors and/or match officials.  Wherever possible, unduly sharp or rough surfaces shall be removed to reduce the possibility of injury to competitors and/or match officials. 
2.2.2.2 The descending side of any obstacle shall be clear of obstructions or natural hazards.  2.2.2.2 The descending side of any obstacle shall be clear of obstructions or natural hazards. 
2.2.2.3 Competitors must be allowed to test such obstacles before the course of fire and should be given a short period to do so.  2.2.2.3 Competitors must be allowed to test such obstacles before the course of fire and should be given a short period to do so. 
2.2.3 Barriers-Barriers for use by competitors shall be constructed in the following manner:  2.2.3 Barriers-Barriers for use by competitors shall be constructed in the following manner: 
2.2.3.1 They must be high enough to serve the intended purpose and strong enough to allow their use in a braced shooting position.  2.2.3.1 They must be high enough to serve the intended purpose and strong enough to allow their use in a braced shooting position. 
2.2.3.2 They shall include fault lines projecting rearward at ground level from the side edges.  2.2.3.2 They shall include fault lines projecting rearward at ground level from the side edges. 
2.2.4 Solid Tunnels-Solid tunnels that a competitor is required to enter or pass through shall be constructed of suitable material and to any length. However, sufficient ports shall be provided to allow match officials to safely monitor competitor action. Tunnel mouth edges shall be prepared to minimize the possibility of injury to competitors and match officials. Course designers must clearly designate the entrance and exit portions of the tunnel as well as the parameters for shooting at any targets from within the tunnel (e.g. fault lines and charge lines).  2.2.4 Solid Tunnels-Solid tunnels that a competitor is required to enter or pass through shall be constructed of suitable material and to any length. However, sufficient ports shall be provided to allow match officials to safely monitor competitor action. Tunnel mouth edges shall be prepared to minimize the possibility of injury to competitors and match officials. Course designers must clearly designate the entrance and exit portions of the tunnel as well as the parameters for shooting at any targets from within the tunnel (e.g. fault lines and charge lines). 
2.2.5 "Cooper" Tunnels-Cooper tunnels may be constructed to any height with braced uprights supporting loose wooden slats. Overhead material will be dislodged if the competitor bumps or strikes the overhead material and must not be heavy enough to present a safety hazard.  2.2.5 "Cooper" Tunnels-Cooper tunnels may be constructed to any height with braced uprights supporting loose wooden slats. Overhead material will be dislodged if the competitor bumps or strikes the overhead material and must not be heavy enough to present a safety hazard. 
2.2.6 Stage Props-Where these items are intended to support a competitor in motion or while engaging targets, they must be constructed with the safety of the competitor and match officials as a priority. Provisions shall be made to allow match officials to safely monitor and control competitor action at all times. Props shall be strong enough to withstand use by all competitors.  2.2.6 Stage Props-Where these items are intended to support a competitor in motion or while engaging targets, they must be constructed with the safety of the competitor and match officials as a priority. Provisions shall be made to allow match officials to safely monitor and control competitor action at all times. Props shall be strong enough to withstand use by all competitors. 
2.2.6.1 Competitors shall not be required to holster the handgun before ascending these obstacles.  2.2.6.1 Competitors shall not be required to holster the handgun before ascending these obstacles. 
2.2.6.2 Scaling aids should be provided to assist competitors if these obstacles are built to a height exceeding 1 meter (3 feet).  2.2.6.2 Scaling aids should be provided to assist competitors if these obstacles are built to a height exceeding 1 meter (3 feet). 
2.2.6.3 The surface to be traversed by competitors shall be kept reasonably clear of debris that may cause loss of footing. Range Officials may add gravel, sand or other materials to a deteriorated range surface for safety reasons. Competitors may not protest these range maintenance actions.  2.2.6.3 The surface to be traversed by competitors shall be kept reasonably clear of debris that may cause loss of footing. Range Officials may add gravel, sand or other materials to a deteriorated range surface for safety reasons. Competitors may not protest these range maintenance actions. 
2.2.7 Holster Retention Test-A holster retention test during a course of fire shall always be conducted prior to loading the handgun. The area designated for the test must be clearly marked and the stage briefing must explain the test procedure.  2.2.7 Holster Retention Test-A holster retention test during a course of fire shall always be conducted prior to loading the handgun. The area designated for the test must be clearly marked and the stage briefing must explain the test procedure. 
2.3 Modifications to Course Construction  2.3 Modifications to Course Construction 
2.3.1 Match officials may modify the physical construction or stage procedure for a course of fire for reasons of safety provided that such changes are approved by the Match Director or Range Master. Any such physical changes or additions to published course of fire should always be completed before the match begins.  2.3.1 Match officials may modify the physical construction or stage procedure for a course of fire for reasons of safety provided that such changes are approved by the Match Director or Range Master. Any such physical changes or additions to published course of fire should always be completed before the match begins. 
2.3.2 All competitors must be notified of any such changes as soon as possible. As a minimum, they must be notified verbally by the official in charge of the course of fire as part of the stage briefing and on the written stage instruction sheet.  2.3.2 All competitors must be notified of any such changes as soon as possible. As a minimum, they must be notified verbally by the official in charge of the course of fire as part of the stage briefing and on the written stage instruction sheet. 
2.3.3 If the Range Master approves any such action after the competition begins they must either:  2.3.3 If the Range Master approves any such action after the competition begins they must either: 
2.3.3.1 Allow the course of fire to continue with the modification affecting only those competitors who have not already completed the stage. If a competitor's actions caused the change, that competitor shall be required to re-shoot the altered course of fire.  2.3.3.1 Allow the course of fire to continue with the modification affecting only those competitors who have not already completed the stage. If a competitor's actions caused the change, that competitor shall be required to re-shoot the altered course of fire. 
2.3.3.2 If possible, require all competitors to complete the course of fire as revised with all previous attempts removed from the match scores.  2.3.3.2 If possible, require all competitors to complete the course of fire as revised with all previous attempts removed from the match scores. 
  2.3.3.3 A competitor who refuses to re-shoot a course of fire, under this or any other section, when so ordered by a Range Official, shall receive a zero score for that stage, irrespective of any previous attempt. 
2.3.4 In the event that the Range Master and Match Director determine that the physical or procedural change results in a loss of competitive equity and it is impossible for all competitors to compete in the revised stage or if the stage has been rendered unsuitable or unworkable, that stage shall be deleted from the match. In this case, all competitors' scores for the stage shall be removed from the match scores.  2.3.4 In the event that the Range Master and Match Director determine that the physical or procedural change results in a loss of competitive equity and it is impossible for all competitors to compete in the revised stage or if the stage has been rendered unsuitable or unworkable, that stage shall be deleted from the match. In this case, all competitors' scores for the stage shall be removed from the match scores. 
2.4 Safety Areas  2.4 Safety Areas 
The host organization shall be responsible for the construction and placement of a sufficient number of Safety Areas for the competition. They should be conveniently placed and easily identified with signs. Safety Areas should include a table with the safe direction and boundaries clearly shown.  The host organization shall be responsible for the construction and placement of a sufficient number of Safety Areas for the competition. They should be conveniently placed and easily identified with signs. Safety Areas should include a table with the safe direction and boundaries clearly shown. 
2.4.1 Competitors are permitted to use the Safety Areas as follows:  2.4.1 Competitors are permitted to use the Safety Areas as stated below provided they remain within the boundaries of the Safety Area and the firearm is pointed in a safe direction. Violations will be subject to match disqualification ( See 10.3.14). 
2.4.1.1 Casing, uncasing and holstering unloaded firearms.  2.4.1.1 Casing, uncasingand holstering unloaded firearms. 
2.4.1.2 Practice drawing, "dry-firing" and re-holstering of unloaded firearms.  2.4.1.2 Practice drawing, "dry-firing" and re-holstering of unloaded firearms. 
2.4.1.3 Practice the insertion and removal of empty magazines and/or to cycle the action of a handgun.  2.4.1.3 Practice the insertion and removal of empty magazines and/or to cycle the action of a handgun. 
2.4.1.4 Conduct inspections, stripping, cleaning, repairs and maintenance of firearms, component parts and other accessories.  2.4.1.4 Conduct inspections, stripping, cleaning, repairs and maintenance of firearms, component parts and other accessories. 
2.4.2 Dummy ammunition, loaded magazines, loaded speed loaders, and live rounds may not be handled in a Safety Area under any circumstances (see rule 10.3.14).  2.4.2 Dummy ammunition (including practice or training rounds, "spring caps" and empty cases), loaded magazines, loaded speed loaders, and live rounds may not be handled in a Safety Area under any circumstances (see rule 10.3.14). 
SECTION 3-Course Information  SECTION 3-Course Information 
3.1 General Regulations  3.1 General Regulations 
Many courses of fire or stages are very complex. They may include sophisticated range equipment and complicated movements. The competitor is always responsible to fulfill these requirements but can only reasonably be expected to do so after receiving the stage briefing which must adequately explain the requirements to the competitors. Course information can be broadly divided into the following types:  Many courses of fire or stages are very complex. They may include sophisticated range equipment and complicated movements. The competitor is always responsible to fulfill these requirements but can only reasonably be expected to do so after receiving the stage briefing which must adequately explain the requirements to the competitors. Course information can be broadly divided into the following types: 
3.1.1 Published Courses of Fire  3.1.1 Published Courses of Fire 
-All competitors shall be sent the same details of the course of fire within the same notice period, and in advance of the date fixed for the competition. With the prior consent of the Range Master , match officials shall have the right to modify courses of fire published or otherwise described in match literature for any reason. Any such changes should be made, wherever possible, prior to commencement of the competition (see rule 2.3).  -All competitors shall be sent the same details of the course of fire within the same notice period, and in advance of the date fixed for the competition. With the prior consent of the Range Master, match officials shall have the right to modify courses of fire published or otherwise described in match literature for any reason. Any such changes should be made, wherever possible, prior to commencement of the competition (see rule 2.3). 
3.1.2 Non-Published Course of Fire  3.1.2 Non-Published Course of Fire 
-Same as 3.1.1 except that the details for the course of fire are not published beforehand. The stage instructions are provided in the stage briefing.  -Same as 3.1.1 except that the details for the course of fire are not published beforehand. The stage instructions are provided in the stage briefing. 
3.2 Written Stage Briefings:  3.2 Written Stage Briefings: 
3.2.1 At IPSC Level III or higher competitions, a written stage briefing approved by the Range Master , should be posted at each course of fire prior to commencement of the competition. This briefing shall take precedence over any course of fire information published or otherwise communicated to competitors in advance of the competition.  3.2.1 At IPSC Level III or higher competitions, a written stage briefing approved by the Range Master, should be posted at each course of fire prior to commencement of the competition. This briefing shall take precedence over any course of fire information published or otherwise communicated to competitors in advance of the competition. 
3.2.2 The range official in charge of a course of fire shall read out the written stage briefing verbatim to each squad. Written stage briefings shall provide the following minimum information to competitors:  3.2.2 The range official in charge of a course of fire shall read out the written stage briefing verbatim to each squad. Written stage briefings shall provide the following minimum information to competitors: 
Stage number:
Scoring Method:
Targets (type & number):
Minimum number of rounds:
Start position:
Time starts: audible or visual signal
Time stops on the last shot
Penalties: Per the current edition IPSC rule book
Procedure: 
Stage number:
Scoring Method:
Targets (type & number):
Minimum number of rounds:
Start position:
Time starts: audible or visual signal
Time stops on the last shot
Penalties: Per the current edition IPSC rule book
Procedure:  
3.2.3 The Range Master shall be allowed to modify a written stage briefing at anytime for reasons of clarity, consistency or safety. Competitors who have attempted the course, prior to any change, in a manner that the Range Master determines to be inconsistent with the modification shall be required to re-shoot the modified course. In the event that this is not possible, the Range Master may allow the course to continue with only the competitor whose actions brought about the change required to re-shoot. If in the opinion of the Range Master, the competitive balance or equality has been lost, the course of fire shall be deleted from the competition and all scores for that course of fire removed from the match scores.  3.2.3 The Range Master shall be allowed to modify a written stage briefing at anytime for reasons of clarity, consistency or safety. Competitors who have attempted the course, prior to any change, in a manner that the Range Master determines to be inconsistent with the modification shall be required to re-shoot the modified course. In the event that this is not possible, the Range Master may allow the course to continue with only the competitor whose actions brought about the change required to re-shoot. If in the opinion of the Range Master, the competitive balance or equality has been lost, the course of fire shall be deleted from the competition and all scores for that course of fire removed from the match scores. 
3.2.4 All props, walls, barriers, screens and vision barriers shall be deemed to be impenetrable ("hard" cover) unless the written stage briefing states otherwise. Any hit on a scoring target or penalty target which is determined to have passed through "hard" cover, shall not count for score or penalty. Any hit on a metal reactive or activator target through "hard" cover shall be treated as range equipment failure (see 4.5.1).  3.2.4 All props, walls, barriers, screens and vision barriers shall be deemed to be impenetrable ("hard" cover) unless the written stage briefing states otherwise. Any hit on a scoring target or penalty target which is determined to have passed through "hard" cover, shall not count for score or penalty. Any hit on a metal reactive or activator target through "hard" cover shall be treated as range equipment failure (see 4.5.1). 
3.3 Local, Regional and National Rules:  3.3 Local, Regional and National Rules: 
3.3.1 IPSC competitions are governed by the rules in this rulebook. Host organizations may not enforce local rules except to comply with legislation or legal precedent in the applicable jurisdiction. Any voluntarily adopted rules that are not in compliance with the IPSC rules shall not be applied to IPSC competition without the express consent of the Regional Directorate.  3.3.1 IPSC competitions are governed by the rules in this rulebook. Host organizations may not enforce local rules except to comply with legislation or legal precedent in the applicable jurisdiction. Any voluntarily adopted rules that are not in compliance with the IPSC rules shall not be applied to IPSC competition without the express consent of the Regional Directorate. 
SECTION 4-Range Equipment  SECTION 4-Range Equipment 
4.1 Targets-General Principles  4.1 Targets-General Principles 
4.1.1 Only targets approved by the IPSC General Assembly and which fully comply with the specifications in Appendices C, D and H shall be used for all IPSC competitions.  4.1.1 Only targets approved by the IPSC General Assembly and which fully comply with the specifications in Appendices C, D and H shall be used for all IPSC competitions. 
4.1.2 Targets shall be scored in accordance with Appendices C, D and H as specified by the IPSC General Assembly.  4.1.2 Targets shall be scored in accordance with Appendices C, D and H as specified by the IPSC General Assembly. 
4.1.3 Scoring targets used in all IPSC competitions shall be of a single plain color, as follows:  4.1.3 Scoring targets used in all IPSC competitions shall be of a single plain color, as follows: 
4.1.3.1 Scoring paper targets shall be of a typical cardboard solid color.  4.1.3.1Scoring paper targets shall be of a typical cardboard solid color. 
4.1.3.2 Scoring metal targets shall be painted a solid color.  4.1.3.2Scoring metal targets shall be painted a solid color. 
4.1.4 Paper scoring targets and metal targets used as penalty targets must be clearly marked or of a solid color different from scoring targets.  4.1.4 Paper scoring targets and metal targets used as penalty targets must be clearly marked or of a solid color different from scoring targets. 
4.1.5 Concealed targets used in a course of fire may be partially or wholly concealed through the use of "soft" or "hard" cover, as follows:  4.1.5 Concealed targets used in a course of fire may be partially or wholly concealed through the use of "soft" or "hard" cover, as follows: 
4.1.5.1 Cover provided merely to obscure the view of targets shall be considered "soft" cover. Shots which have passed through "soft" cover and which strike a scoring target shall score. Shots that have passed through "soft" cover before hitting a penalty target shall be penalized. All scoring zones on targets concealed by "soft" cover shall be left wholly intact.  4.1.5.1 Cover provided merely to obscure the view of targets shall be considered "soft" cover. Shots which have passed through "soft" cover and which strike a scoring target shall score. Shots that have passed through "soft" cover before hitting a penalty target shall be penalized. All scoring zones on targets concealed by "soft" cover shall be left wholly intact. 
4.1.5.2 Cover provided to totally conceal all or a portion of targets shall be considered "hard" cover.  4.1.5.2 Cover provided to totally conceal all or a portion of targets shall be considered "hard" cover. 
Wherever possible "hard" cover should not be simulated but constructed using impenetrable materials.  Wherever possible "hard" cover should not be simulated but constructed using impenetrable materials. 
4.2 IPSC Approved Targets-Paper  4.2 IPSC Approved Targets-Paper 
4.2.1 There are two types of paper targets (see Appendix H). These types may not be included together in any stage  4.2.1 There are two types of paper targets (see Appendix H). These types may not be included together in any stage 
4.2.2 Paper targets shall have scoring lines and non-scoring borders clearly marked on the scoring surface however scoring lines and non-scoring borders should not be visible past a distance of 10 meters (33 feet). The scoring zones provide the recognition of power in IPSC competition.  4.2.2 Paper targets shall have scoring lines and non-scoring borders clearly marked on the scoring surface however scoring lines and non-scoring borders should not be visible past a distance of 10 meters (33 feet). The scoring zones provide the recognition of power in IPSC competition. 
4.2.3 Paper targets shall never be required to receive more than 12 hits before being scored and patched.  4.2.3 Paper targets shall never be required to receive more than 12 hits before being scored and patched. 
4.2.4 Partially concealed paper targets are permitted. Course designers may simulate "hard" cover barriers in the following ways:  4.2.4 Partially concealed paper targets are permitted. Course designers may simulate "hard" cover barriers in the following ways: 
4.2.4.1 By constructing simulations to actually conceal a portion of the target.  4.2.4.1 By constructing simulations to actually conceal a portion of the target. 
4.2.4.2 By cutting targets to remove the portion deemed to be concealed by "hard" cover.  4.2.4.2 By cutting targets to remove the portion deemed to be concealed by "hard" cover. 
4.2.4.3 By painting the portion of the target one solid color to simulate "hard" cover.  4.2.4.3 By painting the portion of the target one solid color to simulate "hard" cover. 
4.2.4.4 Paper targets that are physically cut or painted with a solid color shall be fitted with a replacement non-scoring border. The replacement border shall extend the full width of the scoring area and must be readily visible.  4.2.4.4 Paper targets that are physically cut or painted with a solid color shall be fitted with a replacement non-scoring border. The replacement border shall extend the full width of the scoring area and must be readily visible. 
4.2.4.5 "Hard" cover shall not completely obscure the highest scoring zone on a paper target.  4.2.4.5 "Hard" cover shall not completely obscure the highest scoring zone on a paper target. 
4.3 IPSC Approved Targets-Metal  4.3 IPSC Approved Targets-Metal 
4.3.1 The 2 types of approved metal targets used in IPSC competition are as follows:  4.3.1 The 2 types of approved metal targets used in IPSC competition are as follows: 
4.3.1.1 IPSC Poppers (see Appendix C) are approved metal targets designed to recognize power and shall be calibrated in accordance with Appendix C.  4.3.1.1 IPSC Poppers (see Appendix C) are approved metal targets designed to recognize power and shall be calibrated in accordance with Appendix C. 
4.3.1.2 There are two versions of Poppers: the Pepper Popper and the Classic Popper (see Appendix C). These versions may not be included together in the same stage.  4.3.1.2 There are two types of IPSC Poppers: the Pepper Popper and the Classic Popper. Each type includes two versions: a full size version and a 2/3 size mini version. The smaller versions are designed to simulate distance. (See Appendix C). The two types of Poppers may not be included in the same stage. 
4.3.1.3 IPSC Plates (see Appendix D) shall not be used exclusively in any course of fire. Authorized paper targets or Poppers must be included to recognize power. Metal plates shall always fall or overturn when hit and must be designed and installed to prevent them from turning edge-on or sideways. Metal targets that turn edge-on or sideways when hit are not permitted.  4.3.1.3 IPSC Plates (see Appendix D) shall not be used exclusively in any course of fire. At least one authorized paper target or Popper must be included in each course of fire. Metal plates shall always fall or overturn when hit and must be designed and installed to prevent them from turning edge-on or sideways. Metal targets which turn edge-on or sideways when hit are not permitted and shall be treated as range equipment failure. 
4.3.2 Metal penalty targets may be constructed either to remain upright or to fall or overturn when hit (see rule 9.4.2).  4.3.2 Metal penalty targets may be constructed either to remain upright or to fall or overturn when hit (see rule 9.4.2). 
4.4 Rearrangement Of Range Equipment Or Surface  4.4 Rearrangement Of Range Equipment Or Surface 
4.4.1 The competitor may not rearrange the ground or range equipment prior to the start of a course of fire.  4.4.1 The competitor may not rearrange the ground or range equipment prior to the start of a course of fire. 
4.4.2 The competitor may request that the officials take certain actions to ensure consistency and may refer the matter to the CRO on the stage or the Range Master. The Range Master shall have final authority in matters concerning the range surface.  4.4.2 The competitor may request Match Officials take corrective actions to ensure consistency in respect of the range surface, the presentation of targets and/or any other matter. The Range Master shall have final authority concerning all such requests 
4.5 Range Equipment Failure and other issues  4.5 Range Equipment Failure and other issues 
4.5.1 Range equipment shall present the challenge fairly and equitably to all competitors. Range equipment failure includes but is not limited to the displacement of paper targets, the premature activation of metal or moving targets, the malfunction of mechanically or electrically operated equipment, and the failure of props such as openings, ports, and barriers. A competitor who is unable to complete the course of fire due to range equipment failure shall be required to re-shoot the stage following the necessary repairs to the malfunctioning equipment.  4.5.1 Range equipment shall present the challenge fairly and equitably to all competitors. Range equipment failure includes but is not limited to the displacement of paper targets, the premature activation of metal or moving targets, the malfunction of mechanically or electrically operated equipment, and the failure of props such as openings, ports, and barriers. A competitor who is unable to complete the course of fire due to range equipment failure shall be required to re-shoot the stage following the necessary repairs to the malfunctioning equipment. 
4.5.1.1 Altered target position-If the Range Officer observes that the position of a paper or metal target has changed presenting a different challenge than that presented to previous competitors, the competitor shall be required to re-shoot the course of fire.  4.5.1.1 Altered target position-If the Range Officer observes that the position of a paper or metal target has changed presenting a different challenge than that presented to previous competitors, the competitor shall be required to re-shoot the course of fire. 
4.5.2 Chronic malfunction of equipment in a course of fire may result in the removal of that stage from the match results. The Match Director and Range Master are responsible for any such decision.  4.5.2 Chronic malfunction of equipment in a course of fire may result in the removal of that stage from the match results. The Match Director and Range Master are responsible for any such decision. 
SECTION 5-Competitor Equipment  SECTION 5-Competitor Equipment 
5.1 Handguns & Equipment  5.1 Handguns & Equipment 
5.1.1 Competitor equipment is specifically restricted by the regulations for the Division declared by the competitor before the start of the competition. Specific regulations for each of the Divisions are contained in Appendix E. General regulations for IPSC equipment are provided in the following sections.  5.1.1 Competitor equipment is specifically restricted by the regulations for the Division declared by the competitor before the start of the competition. Specific regulations for each of the Divisions are contained in Appendix E. General regulations for IPSC equipment are provided in the following sections. 
5.2 Handguns  5.2 Handguns 
5.2.1 Handguns are separated by Division, but within the regulations of each Division, the firearms shall not be restricted by action or type. The same conditions for time, distance, and scoring shall apply equally to all.  5.2.1 Handguns are separated by Division, but within the regulations of each Division, the firearms shall not be restricted by action or type. The same conditions for time, distance, and scoring shall apply equally to all. 
5.2.2 The minimum caliber for handguns to be used in IPSC competitions is 9 mm (.354 inches).  5.2.2 The minimum cartridge case dimension for handguns to be used in IPSC competitions is 9X19 mm. The minimum bullet diameter is 9 mm (.354 inches). 
5.2.3 There shall be no restriction on the type of sights except as specified in Appendix E .  5.2.3 There shall be no restriction on the type of sights except as specified in Appendix E. 
5.2.4 There shall be no restriction on the trigger pull weight of the handgun except as specified in Appendix E. In all cases the trigger mechanism must function safely and as originally designed.  5.2.4 There shall be no restriction on the trigger pull weight of the handgun except as specified in Appendix E. In all cases the trigger mechanism must function safely and as originally designed. 
5.2.5 Handguns shall be serviceable and safe. Officiating Range Officers shall have the right to demand examination of a competitor's handgun or related equipment at any time. Examinations may include the primary safety which in all instances must be completely functional in accordance with the original manufacturer's design. The half cock notch, disconnector, and hammer block may also be inspected to ensure that they are functioning as originally designed. If a handgun is declared unserviceable or unsafe, it shall be withdrawn from the competition. The Range Master shall have the final authority in decisions relating to this action.  5.2.5 Handguns shall be serviceable and safe. Officiating Range Officers shall have the right to demand examination of a competitor's handgun or related equipment at any time. Examinations may include the primary safety which in all instances must be completely functional in accordance with the original manufacturer's design. The half cock notch, disconnector, and hammer block may also be inspected to ensure that they are functioning as originally designed. If a handgun is declared unserviceable or unsafe, it shall be withdrawn from the competition. The Range Master shall have the final authority in decisions relating to this action. 
5.2.6 In a single competition, a competitor shall use the same handgun for all courses of fire. However, in the event that a competitor's original handgun becomes unserviceable or unsafe during a competition, they may seek permission from the officiating Range Master to use a substitute handgun provided:  5.2.6 Competitors shall use the same handgun and type of sights for all courses of fire in a competition. However, in the event that a competitor's original handgun and/or sights become unserviceable or unsafe during a competition, they may seek permission from the officiating Range Master to use a substitute handgun and/or sights provided: 
5.2.6.1 The substitute handgun satisfies the requirements of the declared Division and is of the same type, action, and caliber as the handgun the competitor used to start the competition.  5.2.6.1 The substitute handgun satisfies the requirements of the declared Division and is of the same type, action, and caliber as the handgun the competitor used to start the competition. 
5.2.6.2 In using the substitute handgun the competitor will not gain a competitive advantage.  5.2.6.2 In using the substitute handgun the competitor will not gain a competitive advantage. 
5.2.6.3 The competitor's ammunition, when tested in the substitute handgun, attains the minimum power factor for the declared Division using the official match chronograph.  5.2.6.3 The competitor's ammunition, when tested in the substitute handgun, attains the minimum power factor for the declared Division using the official match chronograph. 
  5.2.6.4 A competitor who substitutes or significantly modifies a handgun during a competition without the prior approval of the Range Master shall be subject to the provisions of Section 10.4. 
5.2.7 A competitor shall never use or wear on his person more than one handgun.  5.2.7 A competitor shall never use or wear on his person more than one handgun. 
5.2.8 Trigger shoes that extend beyond the width of the trigger guard are expressly prohibited. Handguns with a trigger shoe attached in violation of the above shall be declared unsafe and immediately removed from the competition.  5.2.8 Trigger shoes that extend beyond the width of the trigger guard are expressly prohibited. Handguns with a trigger shoe attached in violation of the above shall be declared unsafe and immediately removed from the competition. 
5.2.9 Detachable shoulder stocks are prohibited in IPSC competition.  5.2.9 Firearms with shoulder stocks and/or foregrips of any kind are prohibited in IPSC handgun competition. 
  5.2.10 Firearms offering "burst" and/or fully automatic operation (i.e. whereby more than one round can be discharged on a single pull or activation of the trigger), are prohibited in IPSC handgun competition. 
5.3 Holsters and other competitor equipment  5.3 Holsters and other competitor equipment 
5.3.1 In most courses of fire, the competitor's handgun will be securely holstered, with hands clear of the handgun and other equipment prior to the start signal. Other starting positions for the handgun may be stipulated in the written stage briefing.  5.3.1 In most courses of fire, the competitor's handgun will be securely holstered, with hands clear of the handgun and other equipment prior to the start signal. Other starting positions for the handgun may be stipulated in the written stage briefing. 
5.3.2 Where an IPSC approved Division specifies a maximum distance that a competitor's handgun and equipment may extend away from a competitor's body, the Range Officer may check that a competitor's holstered handgun and equipment is in compliance with the requirements of his declared Division, by measuring:  5.3.2 Where an IPSC approved Division specifies a maximum distance that a competitor's handgun and equipment may extend away from a competitor's body, the Range Officer may check that a competitor's holstered handgun and equipment is in compliance with the requirements of his declared Division, by measuring: 
5.3.2.1 The closest distance between the competitor's torso and the center of the longest dimension of the handgun grip.  5.3.2.1 The closest distance between the competitor's torso and the center of the longest dimension of the handgun grip. 
5.3.2.2 The distance between the competitor's body and the inside length of handgun slide or in the case of a revolver the distance between the competitor's body and the cylinder.  5.3.2.2 The distance between the competitor's body and the inside length of handgun slide or in the case of a revolver the distance between the competitor's body and the cylinder. 
5.3.2.3 These measurements shall be done while the competitor is standing naturally upright and must comply with the regulations for the declared Division.  5.3.2.3 These measurements shall be done while the competitor is standing naturally upright and must comply with the regulations for the declared Division. 
5.3.2.4 Any competitor who fails the foregoing test shall be required to immediately adjust his holster or equipment to comply with the requirements of the declared Division.  5.3.2.4 Any competitor who fails the foregoing test shall be required to immediately adjust his holster or equipment to comply with the requirements of the declared Division. 
5.3.2.5 The Range Master shall make allowances for variations in these requirements due to anatomical considerations. Some competitors may not be able to fully comply.  5.3.2.5 The Range Master shall make allowances for variations in these requirements due to anatomical considerations. Some competitors may not be able to fully comply. 
5.3.3 A competitor may re-holster a handgun during a course of fire, provided the re-holstering is accomplished while the competitor is facing a safe direction, and the competitor is also in full compliance with all other safety rules.  5.3.3 A competitor may re-holster a handgun during a course of fire, provided the re-holstering is accomplished either with the handgun unloaded or in the ready condition as stated in Section 8.1 and provided the competitor is also in full compliance with all other safety rules. 
5.3.4 The belt carrying the holster and all allied equipment shall be at waist level. Either the belt or the inner belt or both must be permanently fixed at the waist or fixed with a minimum of three belt loops.  5.3.4 The belt carrying the holster and all allied equipment shall be at waist level. Either the belt or the inner belt or both must be permanently fixed at the waist or fixed with a minimum of three belt loops. 
5.3.4.1 Female competitors may be permitted (see Division regulations) to wear belts carrying their holster and other equipment at the hip level. A second belt at the waist level is permitted, however, all equipment must be carried on the lower belt.  5.3.4.1 Female competitors may be permitted (see Division regulations) to wear belts carrying their holster and other equipment at the hip level. A second belt at the waist level is permitted, however, all equipment must be carried on the lower belt. 
5.3.4.2 For purposes of these regulations, the hip (tuberacity major of the femur) is defined as the furthest lateral points of the top of the femur. The top of the belt shall not be positioned below the top of this bone.  5.3.4.2 For purposes of these regulations, the hip (tuberacity major of the femur) is defined as the furthest lateral points of the top of the femur. The top of the belt shall not be positioned below the top of this bone. 
5.3.5 IPSC competitions shall not require the use of a particular type or brand of holster. Unless specified in the written stage briefing, or unless required by a Range Officer, the position of holsters and allied equipment shall not be moved or changed by a competitor during a competition. If a retaining strap is attached to a holster, it must be applied or closed in the Ready Positions throughout the match. See 8.2  5.3.5 IPSC competitions shall not require the use of a particular type or brand of holster. Unless specified in the written stage briefing, or unless required by a Range Officer, the position of holsters and allied equipment shall not be moved or changed by a competitor during a competition. If a retaining strap is attached to a holster, it must be applied or closed in the Ready Positions throughout the match. See 8.2 
5.3.6 Competitors shall not be permitted to commence a course of fire wearing:  5.3.6 Competitors shall not be permitted to commence a course of fire wearing: 
5.3.6.1 A "tie-down" rig, visible or otherwise.  5.3.6.1 A "tie-down" rig, visible or otherwise. 
5.3.6.2 Uniformed police or military "duty rigs" or shoulder holsters (except as in 5.3.7 below)  5.3.6.2 Uniformed police or military "duty rigs" or shoulder holsters (except as in 5.3.7 below) 
5.3.6.3 A holster, with the heel of the butt of the handgun below the top of the belt;  5.3.6.3 A holster, with the heel of the butt of the handgun below the top of the belt; 
5.3.6.4 A holster, with the muzzle of the handgun pointing farther than 1 meter (3 feet) from the competitor's feet while standing relaxed.  5.3.6.4 A holster, with the muzzle of the handgun pointing farther than 1 meter (3 feet) from the competitor's feet while standing relaxed. 
5.3.6.5 A holster which does not completely cover the trigger of the handgun.  5.3.6.5 A holster which does not completely cover the trigger of the handgun. 
  5.3.6.6 The use of camouflage or other similar types of military or police garments is discouraged. The exception shall be competitors who are active law enforcement or military personnel. 
5.3.7 "Duty Rigs" are defined as holsters and allied equipment issued to active law enforcement officers or military personnel as standard equipment while on duty. Only active personnel in law enforcement and military service may use this equipment in competition and then only if the requirements of 5.3.6.4, 5.3.6.5 and 5.3.8 are satisfied.  5.3.7 "Duty Rigs" are defined as holsters and allied equipment issued to active law enforcement officers or military personnel as standard equipment while on duty. Only active personnel in law enforcement and military service may use this equipment in competition and then only if the requirements of 5.3.6.4, 5.3.6.5 and 5.3.8 are satisfied. 
5.3.8 Holsters shall be able to retain an unloaded handgun during the following tests. Failure during any holster test described below will require the holster to be withdrawn until it complies with the requirements.  5.3.8 Holsters shall be able to retain an unloaded handgun during the following tests. Failure during any holster test described below will require the holster to be withdrawn until it complies with the requirements. 
5.3.8.1 A jump from a stationary start position over an obstacle 40cm high.  5.3.8.1 A jump from a stationary start position over an obstacle 40cm high. 
5.3.8.2 A jump from a stationary start over an obstacle 40cm high and while turning 90 degrees to the left or right in mid-air.  5.3.8.2 A jump from a stationary start over an obstacle 40cm high and while turning 90 degrees to the left or right in mid-air. 
5.3.8.3 Failure during any holster test described above will require the holster to be withdrawn until it complies with the requirements.  5.3.8.3 Failure during any holster test described above will require the holster to be withdrawn until it complies with the requirements. 
5.3.8.4 Any activity within a course of fire.  5.3.8.4 Any activity within a course of fire. 
5.3.8.5 Failure during 5.3.8.4. See Section10.  5.3.8.5 Failure during 5.3.8.4. See Section10. 
5.4 Eye and Hearing protection  5.4 Eye and Hearing Protection 
5.4.1 All competitors are warned that the correct use of eye and hearing protection is in their own interest and of paramount importance to prevent unnecessary injury. It is suggested that eye and hearing protection be worn at all times while on the range.  5.4.1 All competitors are warned that the correct use of eye and hearing protection is in their own interest and of paramount importance to prevent unnecessary injury. It is suggested that eye and hearing protection be worn at all times while on the range. 
5.4.2 Host organizations may require the use of such protection while on the range premises. In this case, range officials shall make every effort to ensure that all officials, spectators and competitors are wearing appropriate protection. If an official notices that a competitor has lost or displaced their safety glasses or ear protectors during a course of fire, the official shall immediately stop the competitor who must then re-shoot the course of fire after the safety equipment has been replaced. The same procedure shall apply if a competitor has started a course of fire without eye protection or hearing protection in place and the official realizes this after the start signal.  5.4.2 Host organizations may require the use of such protection while on the range premises. In this event, Range Officials shall make every effort to ensure that all officials, spectators and competitors are wearing appropriate protection. If an official notices that a competitor has lost or displaced their eye or ear protection during a course of fire or has commenced a course of fire without them the official shall immediately stop the competitor who shall be required to re-shoot the course of fire after the protective devices have been restored. A competitor who loses eye or ear protection during a course of fire, or commences a course of fire without them, shall be entitled to stop, point their firearm in a safe direction and indicate the problem to the official, in which case the provisions of the previous paragraph shall apply. 
5.4.3 Any attempts to gain a competitive advantage by removing the safety glasses or ear protectors after the course of fire has commenced shall be considered unsportsmanlike conduct (see rule 10.4.4).  5.4.3 Any attempts to gain a competitive advantage by removing the safety glasses or ear protectors after the course of fire has commenced shall be considered unsportsmanlike conduct (see rule 10.4.4). 
5.5 Ammunition and related equipment  5.5 Ammunition and related equipment 
5.5.1 Magazines and, speedloaders shall comply with the provisions of the declared Division. Pouches used to carry these items on the belt shall retain their equipment during the holster retention tests (see rule 5.3.8). Equipment that does not pass the test shall be withdrawn until it complies with the requirements.  5.5.1 Magazines and, speed loaders shall comply with the provisions of the declared Division. Pouches used to carry these items on the belt shall retain their equipment during the holster retention tests (see rule 5.3.8). Equipment that does not pass the test shall be withdrawn until it complies with the requirements. 
5.5.2 Spare magazines or reloading devices inadvertently dropped or discarded by a competitor after the start signal may be safely retrieved. However, their retrieval shall, at all times, be subject to the safety rules applicable to that particular course of fire.  5.5.2 Spare magazines or reloading devices inadvertently dropped or discarded by a competitor after the start signal may be safely retrieved. However, their retrieval shall, at all times, be subject to the safety rules applicable to that particular course of fire. 
5.5.3 Metal piercing, incendiary or tracer ammunition is prohibited from IPSC competitions.  5.5.3 Metal piercing, incendiary or tracer ammunition is prohibited from IPSC competitions. 
5.5.4 Any ammunition which, in the opinion of a Range Officer, is unsafe, shall be immediately withdrawn from the competition. The final decision rests with the Range Master in such cases. Replacement ammunition must pass the requirements of the declared Division as tested by the match chronograph. If the replacement ammunition fails to meet the declared power factor limit, the competitor's match scores will be revised to reflect the new power factor.  5.5.4 Any ammunition which, in the opinion of a Range Officer, is unsafe, shall be immediately withdrawn from the competition. The final decision rests with the Range Master in such cases. Replacement ammunition must pass the requirements of the declared Division as tested by the match chronograph. If the replacement ammunition fails to meet the declared power factor limit, the competitor's match scores will be revised to reflect the new power factor. 
5.6 Chronograph and Power Factors  5.6 Chronograph and Power Factors 
5.6.1 The power ratings for each Division in IPSC competition are defined in Appendix E. A chronograph is used to determine the power factor for each firearm and ammunition. Sample cartridges for the chronograph will be taken from each competitor at a time and place determined by the match officials. Ammunition used by a competitor in a match must satisfy the requirements the power factor declared. Match officials may call for additional tests of a competitor's ammunition at any point during the match.  5.6.1 The available power factors for each Division are defined in Appendix E. A chronograph shall be used to determine the power factor. Sample rounds for the chronograph will be taken from each competitor at a time and place determined by the Match Officials. Ammunition used by a competitor must satisfy the requirements of the Division and meet the power factor declared. Match officials may require additional tests of a competitor's ammunition at any point during the match. 
5.6.2 Power Ratings-The power factor requirements for each Division are included in Appendix E. The chronograph will provide the bullet velocity for each competitor's ammunition and firearm. The actual bullet weight is then used with the velocity in the formula below.  5.6.2 Power Ratings-The power factor requirements for each Division are included in Appendix E. The chronograph will provide the bullet velocity for each competitor's ammunition and firearm. The actual bullet weight is then used with the velocity in the formula below. 
Power Factor = bullet weight (grains) x velocity (feet per second) / 1000 Power Factor = bullet weight (grains) x velocity (feet per second) /1000
5.6.3 In the event that a competitor's ammunition does not meet the minimum power factor for the declared Division when calculated as above, the competitor's scores shall be removed from the match score. In this case, the competitor may continue in the competition however, no score or time will be recorded.  5.6.3 In the event that a competitor's ammunition does not meet the minimum power factor for the declared Division when calculated as above, the competitor's scores shall be removed from the match score. In this case, the competitor may continue in the competition however, no score or time will be recorded. 
5.6.4 Chronograph-The Match Organizers must ensure the availability of a chronograph that has been properly setup and verified each day. In the absence of a functioning chronograph, no ammunition may be protested with respect to the declared power factor. Ammunition must be tested using the competitor's firearm.  5.6.4 Chronograph-The Match Organizers must ensure the availability of a chronograph that has been properly set-up and verified each day. In the absence of a functioning chronograph, no ammunition may be protested with respect to the declared power factor. Ammunition must be tested using the competitor's firearm. 
5.6.5 The match chronograph readings must be verified each day in the following manner:  5.6.5 The match chronograph readings must be verified each day in the following manner: 
5.6.5.1 At the beginning of the first day of the match, the Range Officer will fire 3 rounds from the Popper calibration firearm over the chronograph. The average velocity of the test will be recorded. On each of the following match days, the process will be repeated using the same firearm and ammunition (from the same factory lot). The chronograph will be deemed to be within tolerance as long as the daily averages vary no more than 7.6 meters per second ( 25 feet per second) from the first day's readings.  5.6.5.1 At the beginning of the first day of the match, the Range Officer will fire 3 rounds from the Popper calibration firearm over the chronograph. The average velocity of the test will be recorded. On each of the following match days, the process will be repeated using the same firearm and ammunition (from the same factory lot). The chronograph will be deemed to be within tolerance as long as the daily averages vary no more than 7.6 meters per second (25 feet per second) from the first day's readings. 
5.6.6 Chronograph Procedure  5.6.6 Chronograph Procedure 
5.6.6.1 8 rounds from each competitor will be selected at random by a match official.  5.6.6.1 8 rounds from each competitor will be selected at random by a match official. 
5.6.6.2 1 bullet is weighed to determine actual bullet weight, and 3 are fired over the chronograph. In the absence of a bullet puller and scales, the competitor's declared bullet weight may be used.  5.6.6.2 1 bullet is weighed to determine actual bullet weight, and 3 are fired over the chronograph. In the absence of a bullet puller and scales, the competitor's declared bullet weight may be used. 
5.6.6.3 Power factor is calculated using the actual bullet weight and the average velocity of the three rounds fired.  5.6.6.3 Power factor is calculated using the actual bullet weight and the average velocity of the three rounds fired. 
5.6.6.4 If the power factor calculated does not meet the declared factor floor, another 3 rounds are fired over the chronograph and the factor recalculated using the actual bullet weight and the average velocity of the highest 3 from the 6 rounds fired.  5.6.6.4 If the power factor calculated does not meet the declared factor floor, another 3 rounds are fired over the chronograph and the factor recalculated using the actual bullet weight and the average velocity of the highest 3 from the 6 rounds fired. 
5.6.6.5 If the power factor is still insufficient, the competitor has a choice regarding the remaining 8th bullet:  5.6.6.5 If the power factor is still insufficient, the competitor has a choice regarding the remaining 8th bullet: 
-Competitor can choose to have it weighed and, if heavier than the first sample, the power factor calculation in 5.6.5.4 will be recalculated using the new actual bullet weight.  -Competitor can choose to have it weighed and, if heavier than the first sample, the power factor calculation in 5.6.6.4 will be recalculated using the new actual bullet weight. 
-Competitor can elect to have it fired over the chronograph and recalculated using the actual bullet weight and the average of the 3 highest velocities from among the 7 rounds fired.  -Competitor can elect to have it fired over the chronograph and recalculated using the actual bullet weight and the average of the 3 highest velocities from among the 7 rounds fired. 
5.6.6.6 If the above test is still unsuccessful, the competitor's scores are recalculated as minor, or no score if the minor factor minimum has not been satisfied.  5.6.6.6 If the above test is still unsuccessful, the competitor's scores are recalculated as minor, or no score if the minor factor minimum has not been satisfied. 
5.7 Malfunctions-Competitor's Equipment  5.7 Malfunctions-Competitor's Equipment 
5.7.1 In the event that a competitor's handgun malfunctions after the start signal, the competitor may safely attempt to correct the problem and continue the course of fire. During such corrective action, the competitor shall keep the muzzle of the handgun pointing safely downrange at all times. The competitor may not use artificial means such as props, rods, etc., to correct the malfunction.  5.7.1 In the event that a competitor's handgun malfunctions after the start signal, the competitor may safely attempt to correct the problem and continue the course of fire. During such corrective action, the competitor shall keep the muzzle of the handgun pointing safely downrange at all times. The competitor may not use artificial means such as barricades, props, rods, or other tools to correct the malfunction. Violations shall result in disqualification from the stage. 
5.7.2 While rectifying a malfunction that requires the competitor to lower the firearm down from "on aim" at a target, the competitor's fingers shall be clearly placed outside the trigger guard (see rule 10.3.10).  5.7.2 While rectifying a malfunction that requires the competitor to lower the firearm down from "on aim" at a target, the competitor's fingers shall be clearly placed outside the trigger guard (see rule 10.3.10). 
5.7.3 In the event that a firearm malfunction cannot be corrected by the competitor, the competitor shall point the firearm safely downrange and advise the Range Officer. The Range Officer shall terminate the course of fire in the normal manner. The course of fire shall be scored normally including all appropriate miss and failure to shoot at penalties.  5.7.3 In the event that a firearm malfunction cannot be corrected by the competitor, the competitor shall point the firearm safely downrange and advise the Range Officer. The Range Officer shall terminate the course of fire (including any unattempted component strings in a Standard exercise) in the normal manner. The course of fire (including any unattempted and/or uncompleted component strings in a Standard Exercise) shall be scored as shot including all appropriate miss and failure to shoot at penalties (See Rule 5.7.5). 
5.7.4 Under no circumstances shall a competitor be permitted to leave a course of fire in the possession of a loaded firearm.  5.7.4 Under no circumstances shall a competitor be permitted to leave a course of fire in the possession of a loaded firearm. 
5.7.5 Where the handgun has failed as above, the competitor shall not be permitted to re-shoot the course of fire. This includes the instance where a handgun is declared unserviceable or unsafe during a course of fire.  5.7.5 Where the handgun has failed as above, the competitor shall not be permitted to re-shoot the course of fire (including any unattempted component strings in a Standard Exercise). This includes the instance where a handgun is declared unserviceable or unsafe during a course of fire. 
5.7.6 In the event that a Range Officer terminates a course of fire due to a suspicion that a competitor has an unsafe handgun or ammunition (e.g. "squib" load), the Range Officer shall take whatever steps necessary to return both the competitor and the range to a safe condition. The Range Officer shall then inspect the firearm or ammunition. And proceed as follows:  5.7.6 In the event that a Range Officer terminates a course of fire due to a suspicion that a competitor has an unsafe handgun or ammunition (e.g. "squib" load), the Range Officer shall take whatever steps they deem necessary to return both the competitor and the range to a safe condition. The Range Officer shall then inspect the firearm or ammunition. And proceed as follows: 
5.7.6.1 If the Range Officer finds evidence that confirms the suspected problem, the time and score shall be recorded to the point where the competitor was stopped with all appropriate misses and penalties recorded on the score sheet. Under these circumstances, the competitor shall not be entitled to a re-shoot, and the competitor shall be ordered to rectify the problem.  5.7.6.1 If the Range Officer finds evidence that confirms the suspected problem, the time and score shall be recorded to the point where the competitor was stopped with all appropriate misses and penalties recorded on the score sheet. Under these circumstances, the competitor shall not be entitled to a re-shoot, and the competitor shall be ordered to rectify the problem. 
5.7.6.2 If the Range Officer discovers that the suspected safety problem does not exist, the competitor shall be required to re-shoot the stage.  5.7.6.2 If the Range Officer discovers that the suspected safety problem does not exist, the competitor shall be required to re-shoot the stage. 
SECTION 6-Competition Structure  SECTION 6-Competition Structure 
6.1 General Principles-Competitions may involve multiple shooting challenges and multiple firearm types used in various combinations (biathlons, triathlons and combined firearms competitions). The following definitions are used for clarity:  6.1 General Principles-Competitions may involve multiple shooting challenges and multiple firearm types used in various combinations (biathlons, triathlons and combined firearms competitions). The following definitions are used for clarity: 
6.1.1 Stage-An individual shooting challenge. Each stage shall be timed and scored separately, to determine final stage results. A standard exercise stage may consist of more than one string.  6.1.1 Stage-An individual shooting challenge. Each stage shall be timed and scored separately, to determine final stage results. A standard exercise stage may consist of more than one string. 
6.1.2 Standard Exercises-A course of fire consisting of one or more separately timed component strings.  6.1.2 Standard Exercises-A course of fire consisting of more than one separately timed component strings. 
Scores and penalties are accumulated on completion of the course of fire to produce the final stage results.  Scores and penalties are accumulated on completion of the course of fire to produce the final stage results. 
Standard exercises shall be scored using Virginia Count only. The course of fire for each component string may require a specific shooting position, procedure and/or a mandatory reload. This course of fire shall not be included in IPSC sanctioned Level IV or higher competitions.  Standard exercises shall be scored using Virginia Count only. The course of fire for each component string may require a specific shooting position, procedure and/or a mandatory reload. This course of fire shall not be included in IPSC sanctioned Level IV or higher competitions. 
6.1.2.1 String-An individual shooting challenge used as part of a standard exercise. The results shall be accumulated to earn stage points.  6.1.3 String-An individual shooting challenge used as part of a standard exercise. The results shall be accumulated to earn stage points. 
6.1.3 Match-An IPSC shooting competition consisting of a minimum of one stage. The total sum of individual stage results shall be accumulated to declare a match winner. A match shall include only one type of firearm (e.g. handgun or shotgun etc.)  6.1.4 Match-An IPSC shooting competition consisting of a minimum of one stage. The total sum of individual stage results shall be accumulated to declare a match winner. A match shall include only one type of firearm (e.g. handgun or shotgun etc.) 
6.1.4 Tournament-An IPSC shooting competition consisting of two or more firearm specific matches (i.e. handgun match + shotgun match, or handgun match + rifle match + shotgun match etc.). The total sum of the individual match results in each component match shall be accumulated to declare an overall tournament winner.  6.1.5 Tournament-An IPSC shooting competition consisting of two or more firearm specific matches (i.e. handgun match + shotgun match, or handgun match + rifle match + shotgun match etc.). The total sum of the individual match results in each component match shall be accumulated to declare an overall tournament winner. 
6.1.5 Shoot Off-An event conducted separately from a match or competition. Eligible competitors compete directly against each other by simultaneously engaging separate but equal metal target arrays in a process of elimination (such as the "J" ladder as depicted in Appendix F).  6.1.6 Shoot Off-An event conducted separately from a match or competition. Eligible competitors compete directly against each other by simultaneously engaging separate but equal metal target arrays in a process of elimination (such as the "J" ladder as depicted in Appendix F). 
6.1.6 League-An IPSC shooting competition consisting of two or more matches held at different locations and on different dates. The total sum of match results attained by each competitor at component matches specified by the league organizers shall be accumulated to determine a league winner.  6.1.7 League-An IPSC shooting competition consisting of two or more matches held at different locations and on different dates. The total sum of match results attained by each competitor at component matches specified by the league organizers shall be accumulated to determine a league winner. 
6.2 Competition Divisions  6.2 Competition Divisions 
6.2.1 Competition Divisions recognize different firearms and equipment. The requirements for each Division are listed in Appendix E. A competition shall recognize at least one Division.  6.2.1 Competition Divisions recognize different firearms and equipment. The requirements for each Division are listed in Appendix E. A competition shall recognize at least one Division. 
6.2.2 When multiple Divisions are available in a competition, each Division shall be scored separately and independently. The competition results shall recognize a winner in each Division.  6.2.2 When multiple Divisions are available in a competition, each Division shall be scored separately and independently. The competition results shall recognize a winner in each Division. 
6.2.3 Subject to the prior approval of the Match Director, a competitor may enter a competition in more than one Division. However, the competitor may compete for match score in only one Division and that shall be the first attempt in all cases. Match scores shall be accepted for recognition only for the initial completion. Any subsequent attempts in another Division shall not count for match recognition.  6.2.3 Subject to the prior approval of the Match Director, a competitor may enter a competition in more than one Division. However, the competitor may compete for match score in only one Division and that shall be the first attempt in all cases. Match scores shall be accepted for recognition only for the initial completion. Any subsequent attempts in another Division shall not count for match recognition. 
6.2.4 A match disqualification incurred by a competitor, at any time during a competition, shall prevent the competitor from further participation in the competition including any subsequent attempts in another Division. However, this is not retroactive. Any previous and complete match scores from another Division shall be included for recognition and awards in that Division.  6.2.4 A match disqualification incurred by a competitor, at any time during a competition, shall prevent the competitor from further participation in the competition including any subsequent attempts in another Division. However, this is not retroactive. Any previous and complete match scores from another Division shall be included for recognition and awards in that Division. 
6.2.5 Prior to the commencement of a competition, each competitor shall declare one specific Division for score.  6.2.5 Prior to the commencement of a competition, each competitor shall declare one specific Division for score. 
6.2.6 Where a competitor fails to declare a specific Division prior to the commencement of a competition or fails to satisfy the equipment or other requirements of a declared Division during the competition, the competitor shall be classified or reclassified to Open Division. In a match where Open division is not recognized, a competitor who is reclassified as a result of equipment non-compliance shall shoot the match for no score. Failure to declare a Division may be corrected by the Range Master as long as the requirements for the Division are satisfied.  6.2.6 Where a competitor fails to declare a specific Division prior to the commencement of a competition or fails to satisfy the equipment or other requirements of a declared Division during the competition, the competitor shall be classified or reclassified to Open Division. In a match where Open division is not recognized, a competitor who is reclassified as a result of equipment non-compliance shall shoot the match for no score. Failure to declare a Division may be corrected by the Range Master as long as the requirements for the Division are satisfied. 
6.2.7 A competitor who is classified or reclassified as above shall be notified as soon as possible, but not later than the time of posting of the stage results.  6.2.7 A competitor who is classified or reclassified as above shall be notified as soon as possible. The officiating Range Master's decision on these matters shall be final. 
6.2.8 In order for a specific Division to be recognized in an IPSC sanctioned competition, the minimum number of competitors required by the IPSC General Assembly (as specified in Appendix G), must compete in the subject Division.  6.2.8 In order for a specific Division to be recognized in an IPSC sanctioned competition, the minimum number of competitors required by the IPSC General Assembly (as specified in Appendix G), must compete in the subject Division. 
6.2.9 In the event that there are insufficient competitors in a Division, it shall be deleted from the competition. Any competitors affected by this shall be reclassified into another available Division. This reclassification will be determined by the competitor's handgun and equipment and the regulations for the available Divisions.  6.2.9 In the event that there are insufficient competitors in a Division, it shall be deleted from the competition. Any competitors affected by this shall be reclassified into another available Division. This reclassification will be determined by the competitor's handgun and equipment and the regulations for the available Divisions. 
6.2.10 Details of Divisions currently approved by the IPSC General Assembly are listed in Appendix E.  6.2.10 Details of Divisions currently approved by the IPSC General Assembly are listed in Appendix E. It is strongly recommended that all competitors' equipment is checked by a match official to confirm compliance with the declared Division prior to the competitor commencing the competition. 
6.2.11 Recognition of a competitor in a specific Division shall not preclude further recognition in a category or from inclusion as member of a Regional or other team.  6.2.11 Recognition of a competitor in a specific Division shall not preclude further recognition in a category or from inclusion as member of a Regional or other team. 
6.3 Competition Categories  6.3 Competition Categories 
6.3.1 IPSC shooting competitions may involve different "Categories" within the above Divisions. These Categories recognize different levels of competition. Recognition in a Division shall not preclude recognition in a Category, however a competitor may declare only one Category for a match or tournament. Failure to meet the requirements of the declared Category or failure to declare a Category prior to the start of the match will result in exclusion from that Category. Details of currently approved Categories are listed in Appendix G.  6.3.1 IPSC shooting competitions may involve different "Categories" within the above Divisions. These Categories recognize different levels of competition. Recognition in a Division shall not preclude recognition in a Category, however a competitor may declare only one Category for a match or tournament. Failure to meet the requirements of the declared Category or failure to declare a Category prior to the start of the match will result in exclusion from that Category. Details of currently approved Categories are listed in Appendix G. 
6.3.2 For IPSC competitions, recognition of any Category requires a minimum number of competitors. See Appendix G.  6.3.2 For IPSC competitions, recognition of any Category requires a minimum number of competitors. See Appendix G. 
6.4 Regional Teams  6.4 Regional Teams 
6.4.1 One Regional team in a Division may be selected on merit by each Region for IPSC Level III or higher competitions. At the discretion of the Match Organizers, other teams may be fielded but will not be eligible for team recognition or awards. Category teams are specified by a vote in the General Assembly.  6.4.1 One Regional team in a Division may be selected on merit by each Region for IPSC Level III or higher competitions. At the discretion of the Match Organizers, other teams may be fielded but will not be eligible for team recognition or awards. Category teams are specified by a vote in the General Assembly. 
6.4.2 An individual competitor's scores shall be used exclusively for a single team.  6.4.2 An individual competitor's scores shall be used exclusively for a single team. 
6.4.3 Teams shall consist of a maximum of 4 members, however only the scores of the 3 highest scoring team members shall be used to compute team results.  6.4.3 Teams shall consist of a maximum of 4 members, however only the scores of the 3 highest scoring team members shall be used to compute team results. 
6.4.4 In the event that a member of a team becomes disabled or retires from the competition during the competition, scores attained by that competitor shall continue to stand towards the team score. The affected team shall not be entitled to replace that retired team member.  6.4.4 In the event that a member of a team becomes disabled or retires from the competition during the competition, scores attained by that competitor shall continue to stand towards the team score. The affected team shall not be entitled to replace that retired team member. 
6.4.5 A team member who is unable to commence a competition, may be replaced prior to commencement by another competitor, subject to the approval of the Match Director.  6.4.5 A team member who is unable to commence a competition, may be replaced prior to commencement by another competitor, subject to the approval of the Match Director. 
6.4.6 If a member of a team is disqualified from a competition, the disqualified member's scores shall revert to zero for all courses of fire. Teams shall not be entitled to replace a disqualified team member.  6.4.6 If a member of a team is disqualified from a competition, the disqualified member's scores shall revert to zero for all courses of fire. Teams shall not be entitled to replace a disqualified team member. 
6.5 Competitor Status and Credentials  6.5 Competitor Status and Credentials 
6.5.1 All competitors must be individual members of the IPSC Region in which they normally reside. Residency is defined as the Region where the individual is ordinarily domiciled for a minimum of 183 days of the twelve months immediately preceding the month in which the competition begins. Ordinarily domiciled condition is a physical presence test and does not relate to citizenship or to any address of convenience. The 183 days need not be consecutive or the most recent 183 days of the twelve month period.  6.5.1 All competitors must be individual members of the IPSC Region in which they normally reside. Residency is defined as the Region where the individual is ordinarily domiciled for a minimum of 183 days of the twelve months immediately preceding the month in which the competition begins. Ordinarily domiciled condition is a physical presence test and does not relate to citizenship or to any address of convenience. The 183 days need not be consecutive or the most recent 183 days of the twelve month period. 
  6.5.1.1 Competitors who ordinarily reside in a country or geographical area which is not affiliated to IPSC may join an IPSC affiliated Region and may compete under the auspices of that Region, subject to the approval of IPSC and the Regional Directorate of that Region. If a competitor's country or geographical area of residence subsequently applies for affiliation to IPSC, the competitor must become a member of that Region during the affiliation process. 
6.5.2 A resident of a Region shall not forfeit that status by virtue of being domiciled outside that Region while in the service of the armed forces or the government.  6.5.2 A resident of a Region shall not forfeit that status by virtue of being domiciled outside that Region while in the service of the armed forces or the government. 
6.5.3 A competitor and/or team member may represent only the IPSC Region in which they reside. The exception shall be a competitor who represents the Region in which they are a citizen, subject to the prior written approval of both Regional Directors for the Regions of residence and citizenship.  6.5.3 A competitor and/or team member may represent only the IPSC Region in which they reside, except as follows: 
  6.5.3.1 A competitor who wishes to represent the Region in which they are a citizen. The Regional Director for the Region of residence and the Region of citizenship must agree in writing
  6.5.3.2 A competitor who falls under the conditions of 6.5.1.1 may represent the Region of which they are a member subject to the written approval of the Regional Director. 
6.6 Competitor Scheduling and Squadding  6.6 Competitor Scheduling and Squadding 
6.6.1 No competitor will compete for score on other than the scheduled date(s). A competitor or team who is not present at the scheduled time for any stage may not complete that stage, without the specific authority of the Match Director or Range Master.  6.6.1 No competitor will compete for score other than on the scheduled date(s). A competitor or team who is not present at the scheduled time for any stage may not complete that stage, without the specific authority of the Match Director or Range Master. In the event that a competitor fails to obtain such approval, the competitor's score for the subject course of fire shall be zero. 
  6.6.2 Range Officials, match sponsors, IPSC officers (as defined in section 6.1 of the IPSC Constitution) and other persons may compete for score in a "pre-match", subject to the prior approval of the Match Director. 
  All members of Official Regional Teams must compete in the main match. 
  6.7 International Classification System ("ICS") 
  6.7.1 IPSC may coordinate and publish dedicated regulations and procedures in order to manage and administer an International Classification System. 
SECTION 7-Range Management  SECTION 7-Range Management 
7.1 Match Officials-Depending on the size of the competition, duties and responsibilities shall be defined as follows:  7.1 Match Officials-Depending on the size of the competition, duties and responsibilities shall be defined as follows: 
7.1.1 Range Officer-Match official in charge of competitor action. The Range Officer ensures that competitors comply with the stage instructions. The Official stations himself in close proximity to the competitor to observe correct procedure and issues the range commands and oversees safe competitor behaviour (under the authority of a Chief Range Officer and Range Master).  7.1.1 Range Officer-Match official in charge of competitor action. The Range Officer ensures that competitors comply with the stage instructions. The Official stations himself in close proximity to the competitor to observe correct procedure and issues the range commands and oversees safe competitor behavior (under the authority of a Chief Range Officer and Range Master). 
7.1.2 Chief Range Officer-Match official with overall responsibility for one or more courses of fire. The Chief Range Officer has absolute authority in all matters of safety and his authority extends to include all competitors, spectators and other persons in the vicinity of the range. The Chief Range Officer is responsible for the fair and equitable application of all procedural and scoring rules (under the authority of the Range Master).  7.1.2 Chief Range Officer-Match official with overall responsibility for one or more courses of fire. The Chief Range Officer has absolute authority in all matters of safety and his authority extends to include all competitors, spectators and other persons in the vicinity of the range. The Chief Range Officer is responsible for the fair and equitable application of all procedural and scoring rules (under the authority of the Range Master). 
7.1.3 Stats Officer-Match official with overall responsibility for collecting, sorting, tabulating and retaining all score sheets, and for calculating, verifying and publishing all provisional and final results and statistics. Ensures incomplete or inaccurate score sheets are promptly referred to the Range Master (under direct authority of the Range Master).  7.1.3 Stats Officer-Match official with overall responsibility for collecting, sorting, tabulating and retaining all score sheets, and for calculating, verifying and publishing all provisional and final results and statistics. Ensures incomplete or inaccurate score sheets are promptly referred to the Range Master (under direct authority of the Range Master). 
7.1.4 Range Master-Match official in charge of all range officials. Responsible for range safety and safe course design. Ensures that all IPSC guidelines and rules are followed and is responsible for the training, instruction and conduct of the range staff. All matters requiring arbitration and any safety disqualifications will be brought to the attention of the Range Master. The Range Master's authority and decisions with regard to range safety, range officials, the actual operation of the courses of fire and the application of the IPSC rules shall prevail in all matters except arbitration rulings. The Range Master is appointed by and works with the Match Director.  7.1.4 Range Master-Match official in charge of all range officials. Responsible for range safety and safe course design. Ensures that all IPSC guidelines and rules are followed and is responsible for the training, instruction and conduct of the range staff. All matters requiring arbitration and any safety disqualifications will be brought to the attention of the Range Master. The Range Master's authority and decisions with regard to range safety, range officials, the actual operation of the courses of fire and the application of the IPSC rules shall prevail in all matters except arbitration rulings. The Range Master is usually appointed by and works with the Match Director. In respect of IPSC sanctioned Level IV or higher competitions, the appointment of the Range Master shall be subject to the prior written approval of IPSC. 
7.1.5 Match Director-Match official responsible for the overall competition including the efficient administration, squadding, scheduling, range construction and coordination of all staff and the provision of services. The Match Director's authority and decisions shall prevail with regard to all these matters except arbitration rulings. The Match Director is appointed by the host organization and appoints and works with the Range Master.  7.1.5 Match Director-Match official responsible for the overall competition including the efficient administration, squadding, scheduling, range construction and coordination of all staff and the provision of services. The Match Director's authority and decisions shall prevail with regard to all these matters except the discipline of range officials and arbitration rulings. The Match Director is appointed by the host organization and works with the Range Master. 
7.2 Discipline of Match Officials  7.2 Discipline of Match Officials 
7.2.1 The officiating Range Master has authority over all match officials and is responsible for decisions in matters concerning conduct and discipline.  7.2.1 The officiating Range Master has authority over all match officials and is responsible for decisions in matters concerning conduct and discipline. 
7.2.2 In the event that a match official is disciplined, the officiating Range Master shall send a report of the incident and details of the disciplinary action to the match official's Regional Director, the Regional Director of the Region hosting the competition, and to the President of the International Range Officers Association (IROA).  7.2.2 In the event that a match official is disciplined, the officiating Range Master shall send a report of the incident and details of the disciplinary action to the match official's Regional Director, the Regional Director of the Region hosting the competition, and to the President of the International Range Officers Association (IROA). 
7.2.3 A match official who is disqualified from a competition for a safety infraction while competing shall continue to be eligible to serve as a match official for the competition. The Range Master shall make any decision related to an official's participation.  7.2.3 A match official who is disqualified from a competition for a safety infraction while competing shall continue to be eligible to serve as a match official for the competition. The Range Master shall make any decision related to an official's participation. 
SECTION 8-The Course of Fire  SECTION 8-The Course of Fire 
8.1 Handgun Ready Conditions-The ready condition of handguns used in a competition shall be as follows:  8.1 Handgun Ready Conditions-The ready condition for loaded handguns used in a competition shall be as stated below. However, in the event that a competitor fails to load the chamber prior to commencement of the stage, whether inadvertently or intentionally, the Official shall not take any action: 
8.1.1 Revolvers:  8.1.1 Revolvers: 
8.1.1.1 Single Action: hammer fully down on an empty chamber or, if a safety notch is fitted, hammer down over a loaded chamber (transfer bar designs excepted).  8.1.1.1 Single Action: hammer fully down on an empty chamber or, if a safety notch is fitted, hammer down over a loaded chamber (transfer bar designs excepted). 
8.1.1.2 Double Action: hammer fully down and all chambers may be loaded.  8.1.1.2 Double Action: hammer fully down and all chambers may be loaded. 
8.1.2 Self-loading Pistols:  8.1.2 Self-loading Pistols: 
8.1.2.1 "Single action"-chamber loaded, hammer cocked, and the safety engaged.  8.1.2.1 "Single action"-chamber loaded, hammer cocked, and the safety engaged. 
8.1.2.2 "Double action" & "Safe action"-chamber loaded, hammer fully down or decocked.  8.1.2.2 "Double action" & "Safe action"-chamber loaded, hammer fully down or decocked. 
8.1.2.3 "Selective action"-chamber loaded with hammer fully down.-chamber loaded, hammer cocked with external safety engaged (see Divisions in Appendix E).  8.1.2.3 "Selective action"-chamber loaded with hammer fully down.-chamber loaded, hammer cocked with external safety engaged (see Divisions in Appendix E). 
8.1.3 Courses of fire may require alternate ready conditions. These requirements shall be stated clearly in the written stage briefing.  8.1.3 Courses of fire may require alternate ready conditions. These requirements shall be stated clearly in the written stage briefing. 
8.1.4 A course of fire shall not stipulate the number of rounds loaded in the firearm. Stage briefings may only stipulate "when" the firearm is to be loaded.  8.1.4 A course of fire shall not stipulate the number of rounds loaded in the firearm. Stage briefings may only stipulate "when" the firearm is to be loaded. 
8.2 Ready Position-Ready position designates a condition where, under the direct command of the Range Officer:  8.2 Ready Position-Ready position designates a condition where, under the direct command of the Range Officer: 
8.2.1 The handgun is loaded, made safe and holstered or as specified in the stage briefing.  8.2.1 The handgun is prepared as specified in the written stage briefing. 
8.2.2 The competitor assumes the required start position.  8.2.2 The competitor assumes the required start position. 
8.2.3 A competitor shall not be allowed to start a course of fire while touching or holding a handgun, reloading device or ammunition.  8.2.3 A competitor shall not be allowed to touch or hold a handgun, reloading device or ammunition after the "Standby" command and before the "Start Signal". Violations shall incur one procedural penalty per occurrence. 
8.2.4 IPSC competitions shall not require the competitor to attempt a draw from the holster with the weak hand.  8.2.4 IPSC competitions shall not require the competitor to attempt a draw from the holster with the weak hand. 
8.3 Range Communications-The approved range commands and their sequence are as follows:  8.3 Range Communications-The approved range commands and their sequence are as follows: 
8.3.1 "Load And Make Ready"-This command signifies the start of "the course of fire". Under the direct supervision of the Range Officer the competitor will face down range, fit eye and hearing protection, and prepare the handgun in accordance with the stage briefing. The competitor shall then assume the required ready position. At this point, the Range Officer shall proceed.  8.3.1 "Load And Make Ready"-This command signifies the start of "the course of fire". Under the direct supervision of the Range Officer the competitor will face down range, fit eye and hearing protection, and prepare the handgun in accordance with the stage briefing. The competitor shall then assume the required ready position. At this point, the Range Officer shall proceed. 
8.3.2 "Are You Ready?"-The lack of any negative response from the competitor indicates that they fully understand the requirements of the course of fire and that they are ready to proceed. If the competitor is not ready at the "Are you ready?" command, they must shout "Not Ready". It is suggested that when the competitor takes up the ready position, placing the hands into the position required will indicate final readiness to the Range Officer.  8.3.2 "Are You Ready?"-The lack of any negative response from the competitor indicates that they fully understand the requirements of the course of fire and that they are ready to proceed. If the competitor is not ready at the "Are you ready?" command, they must shout "Not Ready". It is suggested that when the competitor takes up the ready position, placing the hands into the position required will indicate final readiness to the Range Officer. 
8.3.3 "Standby"-This command will be followed by the start signal within 1 to four 4 seconds.  8.3.3 "Standby"-This command will be followed by the start signal within 1 to four 4 seconds. 
8.3.4 "Start Signal"-The signal to begin the course of fire.  8.3.4 "Start Signal"-The signal to begin shooting. 
8.3.5 "Stop"-The officiating Range Officer may issue this command at any time during the course of fire. The competitor shall immediately cease firing, stand still and wait for further instructions from the Range Officer.  8.3.5 "Stop"-The officiating Range Officer may issue this command at any time during the course of fire. The competitor shall immediately cease firing, stand still and wait for further instructions from the Range Officer. 
8.3.6 "If You Are Finished, Unload And Show Clear"-When the Range Officer issues this command and the competitor has finished the course of fire, the competitor shall lower his handgun, unload it and present it to the Range Officer for inspection. The unloading procedure must be carried out and the handgun presented to the Range Officer, with the muzzle pointed down range at all times. Revolvers shall be presented with the cylinder swung out and empty. Self-loading pistols shall be presented with the magazine removed, the chamber empty, and the slide held or locked back.  8.3.6 "If You Are Finished, Unload And Show Clear"-When the Range Officer issues this command and the competitor has finished the course of fire, the competitor shall lower his handgun, unload it and present it to the Range Officer for inspection. The unloading procedure must be carried out and the handgun presented to the Range Officer, with the muzzle pointed down range at all times. Revolvers shall be presented with the cylinder swung out and empty. Self-loading pistols shall be presented with the magazine removed, the chamber empty, and the slide held or locked back. 
8.3.7 "Gun Clear, Hammer Down, Holster"-This command is given after the Range Officer is satisfied that the handgun is unloaded and safe for further action. The competitor shall, holster the handgun in the one of the safe conditions below. Completion of the holster portion of this command signifies the end of the course of fire.  8.3.7 "Gun Clear, Hammer Down, Holster"-This command is given after the Range Officer is satisfied that the handgun is unloaded and safe for further action. The competitor shall, holster the handgun in the one of the safe conditions below. Completion of the holster portion of this command signifies the end of the course of fire. 
8.3.7.1 Revolvers-cylinder closed and empty , hammer down by pulling the trigger.  8.3.7.1 Revolvers-cylinder closed and empty, hammer down by pulling the trigger. 
8.3.7.2 Self-loaders-magazine removed, slide forward, hammer down by pulling the trigger.  8.3.7.2 Self-loaders-magazine removed, slide forward, hammer down by pulling the trigger. 
8.3.8 "Range Is Clear"-Competitor or officials shall not move forward to or away from the firing line until this declaration is given by the Range Officer. Once the declaration is made, officials and competitors may move forward to score, patch, reset targets etc.  8.3.8 "Range Is Clear"-Competitor or officials shall not move forward to or away from the firing line until this declaration is given by the Range Officer. Once the declaration is made, officials and competitors may move forward to score, patch, reset targets etc. 
8.4 Reloading  8.4 Reloading 
8.4.1 "Reloading" is defined as the replacement of one source of ammunition with another. During reloading, the handgun shall be pointed safely down range. This is particularly important while reloading a selfloader, as it will normally have a live round in the chamber and the safety disengaged. The competitor's fingers shall be outside the trigger guard while reloading.  8.4.1 "Reloading" is defined as the replacement of one source of ammunition with another. During reloading, the handgun shall be pointed safely down range. This is particularly important while reloading a selfloader, as it will normally have a live round in the chamber and the safety disengaged. The competitor's fingers shall be outside the trigger guard while reloading. 
8.5 Movement  8.5 Movement 
8.5.1 All movement must be accomplished with the finger outside the trigger guard except if targets are visible to the shooter and the shooter maintains a sight picture on the targets with the intent of engaging them. The firearm must be pointed in a safe direction and the safety should be engaged. "Movement" is defined as any of the actions below:  8.5.1 All movement must be accomplished with the finger outside the trigger guard except if targets are visible to the shooter and the shooter maintains a sight picture on the targets with the intent of engaging them. The firearm must be pointed in a safe direction and the safety should be engaged. "Movement" is defined as any of the actions below: 
8.5.1.1 Taking more than one step in any direction  8.5.1.1 Taking more than one step in any direction 
8.5.1.2 Changing positions (i.e. from standing to kneeling).  8.5.1.2 Changing positions (i.e. from standing to kneeling). 
8.5.2 Re-holstering the firearm during the course of fire is not recommended. If a competitor holsters a firearm during the course of fire, the following will apply:  8.5.2 Re-holstering the firearm during the course of fire is not recommended. If a competitor holsters a loaded firearm during the course of fire, the following will apply: 
8.5.2.1 For a single action self-loader the safety must be applied  8.5.2.1 For a single action self-loader the safety must be applied 
8.5.2.2 For double action self-loaders and revolvers the hammer must be down.  8.5.2.2 For double action self-loaders and revolvers the hammer must be down. ( See Rule 10.3.13). 
8.6 Assistance or Interference  8.6 Assistance or Interference 
8.6.1 No physical, verbal, visual or any other assistance or interference shall be given to a competitor during a course of fire. A Range Officer may, for reasons of safety, provide safety warnings to a competitor at any time. Such warnings shall not be grounds for the competitor to be awarded a re-shoot.  8.6.1 No physical, verbal, visual or any other assistance or interference shall be given to a competitor during a course of fire. A Range Officer may, for reasons of safety, provide safety warnings to a competitor at any time. Such warnings shall not be grounds for the competitor to be awarded a re-shoot. 
8.6.2 Any person providing assistance or interference to a competitor during a course of fire may at the discretion of the officiating Range Officer incur a procedural penalty for that stage. The competitor receiving such assistance may, at the discretion of the Range Officer, also incur a procedural penalty.  8.6.2 Any person providing assistance or interference to a competitor during a course of fire may at the discretion of the officiating Range Officer incur a procedural penalty for that stage. The competitor receiving such assistance may, at the discretion of the Range Officer, also incur a procedural penalty. 
8.6.3 In the case where there is inadvertent physical contact between the Range Officer and the competitor, the Range Officer may offer to allow the competitor to re-shoot the course of fire. The competitor must make this decision prior to seeing either the time or the score from the initial attempt.  8.6.3 In the case where there is inadvertent physical contact between the Range Officer and the competitor, the Range Officer may offer the competitor a re-shoot of the course of fire. The competitor must make this decision prior to seeing either the time or the score from the initial attempt. However in the event that the competitor commits a safety infraction during any such physical contact with the Range Officer, the provisions of Section 10.3 shall prevail. 
  8.6.4 In the event that a competitor begins shooting prematurely ("false start"), the Range Officer will, as soon as possible, stop the competitor and restart the competitor, as soon as the course of fire has been restored. 
  8.7 Sight Pictures 
  8.7.1 Competitors shall not take a sight picture with a loaded firearm prior to the start signal. Violation shall result in a warning for the first occurrence and one procedural penalty for each subsequent occurrence in the same competition. Match Organizers may prohibit sight pictures for a competition. All competitors must be advised during the stage instructions. 
SECTION 9-Scoring  SECTION 9-Scoring 
9.1 General Regulations  9.1 General Regulations 
9.1.1 Approaching Targets-Competitors shall not approach scoring or penalty target closer than 1 meter without the authorization of the Range Officer. Violation may result in either a warning or a procedural penalty.  9.1.1 Approaching Targets-Competitors shall not approach scoring or penalty targets closer than 1 meter without the authorization of the Range Officer. Violation may result in either a warning or a procedural penalty. 
9.1.2 Touching Targets-Competitors shall not touch, gauge or otherwise interfere with a scoring or penalty target without the authorization of the Range Officer. Should a Range Officer deem that a competitor or their delegate has influenced or affected the scoring process due to such interference, the Range Officer may:  9.1.2 Touching Targets-Competitors shall not touch, gauge or otherwise interfere with a scoring or penalty target without the authorization of the Range Officer. Should a Range Officer deem that a competitor or their delegate has influenced or affected the scoring process due to such interference, the Range Officer may: 
9.1.2.1 Score the affected target as a missed target with penalties applied for misses if applicable.  9.1.2.1 Score the affected target as a missed target with penalties applied for misses if applicable. 
9.1.2.2 Impose penalties for any affected penalty targets.  9.1.2.2 Impose penalties for any affected penalty targets. 
9.1.3 Prematurely Patched Targets-If a target is prematurely patched, preventing the determination of the actual score, the Range Officer shall order the competitor to re-shoot the course of fire.  9.1.3 Prematurely Patched Targets-If a target is prematurely patched, preventing the determination of the actual score, the Range Officer shall order the competitor to re-shoot the course of fire. 
9.1.4 Un-restored Targets-If, following completion of a course of fire by a previous competitor, a target has not been properly patched or reset in preparation for the next competitor, the following shall apply:  9.1.4 Un-restored Targets-If, following completion of a course of fire by a previous competitor, a target has not been properly patched or reset in preparation for the next competitor, the following shall apply: 
9.1.4.1 If any metal or other moving target had not been reset, the Range Officer shall order the competitor to re-shoot the course of fire.  9.1.4.1 If any metal or other moving target had not been reset, the Range Officer shall order the competitor to re-shoot the course of fire. 
9.1.4.2 If scoring or penalty paper targets have not been patched or taped after a previous competitor's attempt at the course of fire, and there are extra scoring or questionable penalty hits on one or more targets and it is not obvious to the Range Officer which hits were made by the immediate competitor, the Range Officer shall order the competitor to re-shoot the course of fire.  9.1.4.2 If scoring or penalty paper targets have not been patched or taped after a previous competitor's attempt at the course of fire, and there are extra scoring or questionable penalty hits on one or more targets and it is not obvious to the Range Officer which hits were made by the immediate competitor, the Range Officer shall order the competitor to re-shoot the course of fire. 
9.1.5 Impenetrable-All IPSC paper targets are deemed to be impenetrable. A shot fired where the full bullet diameter strikes a scoring or penalty paper target and continues on through to strike another scoring or penalty paper target, shall not count for additional score or penalty. In the event of a full bullet diameter hit on a paper scoring or penalty target where the shot continues on and strikes down a metal target, this is range equipment failure and the competitor shall be required to re-shoot the course of fire after it has been properly reset. A shot fired by a competitor where less than the full bullet diameter strikes a scoring or penalty paper target and continues on through and strikes another scoring or penalty paper or metal target, shall earn or incur the score or penalty, as the case may be.  9.1.5 Impenetrable-All IPSC paper targets are deemed to be impenetrable. 
  9.1.5.1 A shot fired where the full bullet diameter strikes a scoring or penalty paper target and continues on through to strike another scoring or penalty paper target, shall not count for additional score or penalty. 
  9.1.5.2 In the event of a full bullet diameter hit on a scoring or penalty paper target where the shot continues on and strikes down a metal target, this is range equipment failure and the competitor shall be required to re-shoot the course of fire after it has been properly reset. 
  9.1.5.3 A shot fired by a competitor where less than the full bullet diameter strikes a scoring or penalty paper target and continues on through and strikes another scoring or penalty paper or metal target, shall earn or incur the score or penalty, as the case may be. 
9.2 Scoring Methods  9.2 Scoring Methods 
9.2.1 The written stage briefing for each course of fire shall specify the details of the scoring method.  9.2.1 The written stage briefing for each course of fire shall specify the details of the scoring method. 
9.2.2 Courses of fire shall be scored using one of the following methods:  9.2.2 Courses of fire shall be scored using one of the following methods: 
9.2.2.1 "Virginia Count"-The total scores (minus penalties) divided by the total time. The number of rounds is fixed and time stops on the last shot. Only paper targets may be used. Virginia count may be used only for Standard Exercises, Classifiers and Short courses and may not be used in Level IV or higher competitions.  9.2.2.1 "Virginia Count"-The total scores (minus penalties) divided by the total time. The number of rounds is fixed and time stops on the last shot. Only paper targets may be used. Virginia count may be used only for Standard Exercises, Classifiers and Short courses and may not be used in Level IV or higher competitions. 
9.2.2.2 "Comstock"-No limits shall be placed on the time taken or the number of rounds fired by a competitor during the course of fire. A competitor's score shall be calculated by adding the total point value of all scoring shots, then deducting the value of procedural or other penalties that may apply. This result is then divided by the actual time taken by the competitor to complete the course of fire, to arrive at a "hit factor" for each competitor. The competitor with the highest "hit factor" shall be awarded the maximum available stage points for the course of fire, with all other competitors ranked relative to this score.  9.2.2.2 "Comstock"-No limits shall be placed on the time taken or the number of rounds fired by a competitor during the course of fire. Time stops on the last shot. A competitor's score shall be calculated by adding the total point value of all scoring shots, then deducting the value of procedural or other penalties that may apply. This result is then divided by the actual time taken by the competitor to complete the course of fire, to arrive at a hit factor for each competitor. The competitor with the highest hit factor shall be awarded the maximum available stage points for the course of fire, with all other competitors ranked relative to this score. 
9.2.2.3 Competitions with courses of fire scored using one or more of the foregoing scoring methods shall rank competitors within their Division in descending order of overall stage points achieved in all courses of fire, calculated to not less than four (4) decimal places.  9.2.2.3 Competitions with courses of fire scored using one or more of the foregoing scoring methods shall rank competitors within their Division in descending order of overall stage points achieved in all courses of fire, calculated to not less than four (4) decimal places. 
9.3 Scoring Ties  9.3 Scoring Ties 
9.3.1 Any tie shall be broken by comparing the number of "A's" each competitor scored. If a tie still exists, the Stats Officer would then compare "B's" and so on until the tie is broken. If at the end of this process, there is still a tie, the Match Director will design a course of fire that the competitors shall shoot to break the tie. Ties may not be broken by games of chance.  9.3.1 Any tie shall be broken by comparing the number of "A's" each competitor scored. If a tie still exists, the Stats Officer would then compare "B's" and so on until the tie is broken. If at the end of this process, there is still a tie, the Match Director will design a course of fire that the competitors shall shoot to break the tie. Ties may not be broken by games of chance. 
9.4 Scoring and Penalty Values  9.4 Scoring and Penalty Values 
9.4.1 Scoring and penalty shots on IPSC targets shall be scored in accordance with the values approved by the IPSC General Assembly. (See Appendix C, D and H).  9.4.1 Scoring and penalty shots on IPSC targets shall be scored in accordance with the values approved by the IPSC General Assembly. (See Appendix C, D and H). 
9.4.2 All hits visible on the scoring surface of a penalty target shall be penalized the equivalent of twice the point value of a maximum scoring hit.  9.4.2 Hits visible on the scoring surface of a penalty target shall be penalized the equivalent of twice the point value of a maximum scoring hit, up to a maximum of two hits per penalty target. 
9.4.3 All misses will be penalized as twice the value of the maximum scoring value on that target.  9.4.3 All misses will be penalized as twice the value of the maximum scoring value on that target. 
9.4.4 In a Virginia Count Standard Exercise course of fire:  9.4.4 In a Virginia Count Standard Exercise course of fire: 
9.4.4.1 Extra shots (more than the number specified) shall constitute a procedural penalty for each extra shot and only the highest scoring and correct number of hits shall be scored.  9.4.4.1 Extra shots (more than the number specified) shall constitute a procedural penalty for each extra shot and only the highest scoring and correct number of hits shall be scored. 
9.4.4.2 Targets that do not have the required number of hits shall always incur miss penalties.  9.4.4.2 Targets that do not have the required number of hits shall always incur miss penalties. 
9.5 Scoring Policy  9.5 Scoring Policy 
9.5.1 Unless otherwise stated in the written stage briefing, all scoring paper targets shall require a maximum of two hits to score and scoring metal targets must fall to score.  9.5.1 Unless otherwise stated in the written stage briefing, scoring paper targets shall be shot with a minimum of two rounds each, with the best two hits to score. Scoring metal targets must be shot with a minimum of one round each and must fall to score. 
9.5.2 In Comstock scoring only the specified number and highest value scoring hits shall be counted for score regardless of the actual number of hits a competitor may have on a scoring target.  9.5.2 In Comstock scoring only the specified number and highest value scoring hits shall be counted for score regardless of the actual number of hits a competitor may have on a scoring target. 
9.5.3 If the bullet diameter of any hit on a scoring target touches the scoring line between scoring areas, it shall be scored as the higher value.  9.5.3 If the bullet diameter of any hit on a scoring target touches the scoring line between scoring areas, it shall be scored as the higher value. 
9.5.4 If the bullet diameter of any hit in a replacement non-scoring border ("hard" cover) touches the scoring area on the target, it shall be scored as the value of that area.  9.5.4 If the bullet diameter of any hit in a replacement non-scoring border ("hard" cover) touches the scoring area on the target, it shall be scored as the value of that area. 
9.5.5 If a portion of the bullet diameter of any hit on a scoring target also touches the scoring surface of a penalty target, it shall score the target and the penalty.  9.5.5 If a portion of the bullet diameter of any hit on a scoring target also touches the scoring surface of a penalty target, it shall score the target and the penalty. 
9.5.6 If a portion of the bullet diameter of any hit on a penalty target touches a scoring area of a scoring target, it shall score the penalty and the target.  9.5.6 If a portion of the bullet diameter of any hit on a penalty target touches a scoring area of a scoring target, it shall score the penalty and the target. 
9.5.7 Radial tears radiating outwards from the diameter of the bullet hole shall not count for score or incur penalties.  9.5.7 Radial tears radiating outwards from the diameter of the bullet hole shall not count for score or incur penalties. 
9.5.8 The minimum score for a course of fire shall be zero.  9.5.8 The minimum score for a course of fire shall be zero. 
9.5.9 If a competitor fails to shoot at each target in a course of fire with at least one round, the competitor shall incur one procedural penalty (per target) for failure to shoot at a target as well as the appropriate penalties for misses.  9.5.9 If a competitor fails to shoot at each target in a course of fire with at least one round, the competitor shall incur one procedural penalty (per target) for failure to shoot at a target as well as the appropriate penalties for misses. 
9.6 Score Verification and Challenge  9.6 Score Verification and Challenge 
9.6.1 After the Range Officer has declared the "Range is Clear", the competitor should be allowed to accompany the official responsible for scoring to verify the scoring.  9.6.1 After the Range Officer has declared the "Range is Clear", the competitor should be allowed to accompany the official responsible for scoring to verify the scoring. 
9.6.2 The range official responsible for a course of fire may stipulate that the scoring process will begin while a competitor is actually completing a course of fire. In such cases, the competitor's delegate shall be entitled to accompany the official responsible for scoring in order to verify the scoring. Competitors shall be advised of this procedure during the stage briefing.  9.6.2 The range official responsible for a course of fire may stipulate that the scoring process will begin while a competitor is actually completing a course of fire. In such cases, the competitor's delegate shall be entitled to accompany the official responsible for scoring in order to verify the scoring. Competitors shall be advised of this procedure during the stage briefing. 
9.6.3 A competitor or delegate who fails to verify every target during the scoring process shall not later challenge or protest the score.  9.6.3 A competitor or delegate who fails to verify every target during the scoring process shall not later challenge or protest the score. 
9.6.4 Any objection to a score or scoring penalty shall be immediately challenged by the competitor or delegate with the officiating Range Officer.  9.6.4 Any objection to a score or scoring penalty shall be immediately challenged by the competitor or delegate with the officiating Range Officer. 
9.6.5 In the event that the Range Officer upholds the original score or penalty and the competitor is dissatisfied, they may appeal to the Chief Range Officer and then to the Range Master for a ruling.  9.6.5 In the event that the Range Officer upholds the original score or penalty and the competitor is dissatisfied, they may appeal to the Chief Range Officer and then to the Range Master for a ruling. 
9.6.6 The ruling shall be final. No further appeals or protests are allowed with respect to the scoring decision.  9.6.6 The ruling shall be final. No further appeals or protests are allowed with respect to the scoring decision. 
9.6.7 During a scoring challenge, the subject target(s) shall not be patched, taped or otherwise interfered with until the dispute has been settled. The Range Officer may remove a disputed paper target from the course of fire for further examination to prevent any delay in the competition. Both the competitor and the officiating Range Officer shall sign the target and clearly indicate which hit(s) is in dispute.  9.6.7 During a scoring challenge, the subject target(s) shall not be patched, taped or otherwise interfered with until the dispute has been settled. The Range Officer may remove a disputed paper target from the course of fire for further examination to prevent any delay in the competition. Both the competitor and the officiating Range Officer shall sign the target and clearly indicate which hit(s) is in dispute. 
9.7 Score Sheets  9.7 Score Sheets 
9.7.1 The Range Officer shall ensure that all information is entered on each competitor's score sheet prior to signing the score sheet. After the Range Officer has signed the score sheet, the competitor will add his own signature in the appropriate place. Whole numbers should be used to record all scores or penalties. The elapsed time taken by the competitor to complete the course of fire shall be recorded to not less than 2 decimal places in the appropriate place.  9.7.1 The Range Officer shall ensure that all information is entered on each competitor's score sheet prior to signing the score sheet. After the Range Officer has signed the score sheet, the competitor will add his own signature in the appropriate place. Whole numbers should be used to record all scores or penalties. The elapsed time taken by the competitor to complete the course of fire shall be recorded to not less than 2 decimal places in the appropriate place. 
9.7.2 If corrections to the score sheet are required, these shall be clearly entered onto the original and other copies of the competitor's score sheets. The competitor and the Range Officer should initial any corrections.  9.7.2 If corrections to the score sheet are required, these shall be clearly entered onto the original and other copies of the competitor's score sheets. The competitor and the Range Officer should initial any corrections. 
9.7.3 Should a competitor refuse to sign or initial a score sheet, for any reason, the matter shall be referred to the Range Master. If the Range Master is satisfied that the course of fire has been conducted and scored correctly the unsigned score sheet will be submitted as normal for inclusion in the match scores  9.7.3 Should a competitor refuse to sign or initial a score sheet, for any reason, the matter shall be referred to the Range Master. If the Range Master is satisfied that the course of fire has been conducted and scored correctly the unsigned score sheet will be submitted as normal for inclusion in the match scores 
9.7.4 A score sheet which has been signed by both the competitor and the Range Officer shall be conclusive evidence that the course of fire has been completed, and that the time, scores and penalties attained by the competitor are accurate and uncontested. The signed score sheet shall be deemed to be a definitive document, and with the exception of an arbitration decision it shall only be changed to correct arithmetical errors or to add procedural penalties under Section 8.6.  9.7.4 A score sheet which has been signed by both the competitor and the Range Officer shall be conclusive evidence that the course of fire has been completed, and that the time, scores and penalties attained by the competitor are accurate and uncontested. The signed score sheet shall be deemed to be a definitive document, and with the exception of an arbitration decision it shall only be changed to correct arithmetical errors or to add procedural penalties under Section 8.6. 
9.7.5 If a score sheet is found to have insufficient or excess entries or if the time has not been recorded, the competitor will be required to re-shoot the course of fire.  9.7.5 If a score sheet is found to have insufficient or excess entries or if the time has not been recorded, the competitor will be required to re-shoot the course of fire. 
9.7.6 In the event that a re-shoot is not possible or permissible for any reason, the following actions shall prevail:  9.7.6 In the event that a re-shoot is not possible or permissible for any reason, the following actions shall prevail: 
9.7.6.1 If the time is missing, the competitor shall receive a zero score for the course of fire.  9.7.6.1 If the time is missing, the competitor shall receive a zero score for the course of fire. 
9.7.6.2 If insufficient hits or misses have been recorded on the score sheet, those that have been recorded will be deemed complete and conclusive.  9.7.6.2 If insufficient hits or misses have been recorded on the score sheet, those that have been recorded will be deemed complete and conclusive. 
9.7.6.3 If excessive scoring hits or miss penalties have been recorded, the highest value scoring hits recorded shall be used.  9.7.6.3 If excessive scoring hits or miss penalties have been recorded, the highest value scoring hits recorded shall be used. 
9.7.6.4 If the overall total of scoring hits and misses recorded for a single target are excessive, the benefit of doubt shall be given to the competitor.  9.7.6.4 If the overall total of scoring hits and misses recorded for a single target are excessive, the benefit of doubt shall be given to the competitor. 
9.8 Scoring Responsibility  9.8 Scoring Responsibility 
9.8.1 Each competitor is responsible to maintain an accurate record of their scores to verify the lists posted by the Stats Officer.  9.8.1 Each competitor is responsible to maintain an accurate record of their scores to verify the lists posted by the Stats Officer. 
9.8.2 After all competitors have completed a match, the provisional stage results should be published and posted in a conspicuous place by the Stats Officer for the purpose of verification by competitors.  9.8.2 After all competitors have completed a match, the provisional stage results should be published and posted in a conspicuous place by the Stats Officer for the purpose of verification by competitors. 
9.8.3 If a competitor detects an error in the provisional results at the end of the match, they must file a protest with the officiating Stats Officer not later than one hour after the results are posted. If the protest is not filed within the time limit, the posted scores will stand and the protest shall be dismissed.  9.8.3 If a competitor detects an error in the provisional results at the end of the match, they must file a protest with the officiating Stats Officer not later than one hour after the results are posted. If the protest is not filed within the time limit, the posted scores will stand and the protest shall be dismissed. 
9.9 Scoring of Moving Targets-Moving targets may be scoring and/or penalty targets and shall be scored in accordance with the following:  9.9 Scoring of Moving Targets-Moving targets may be scoring and/or penalty targets and shall be scored in accordance with the following: 
9.9.1 After completing the designed movement, moving targets must either present at least a portion of the highest scoring area ("A" zone) when at rest or disappear completely from view. Moving targets that remain in view after completing the designed movement, or that continuously appear and disappear, shall always incur miss penalties. Moving targets that disappear completely shall not incur penalties for missed shots, with the exception of targets that present multiple exposures to the competitor before disappearing, which shall incur miss penalties.  9.9.1 After completing the designed movement, moving targets must either present at least a portion of the highest scoring area when at rest or disappear completely from view. 
  9.9.1.1 Moving targets which remain in view after completing the designed movement, or which continuously appear and disappear, shall always incur failure to shoot at and/or miss penalties. 
  9.9.1.2 Moving targets which totally disappear after completing the designed movement shall not incur failure to shoot at or miss penalties except where the competitor fails to activate disappearing targets. (see 9.9.2.). 
9.9.2 Moving targets shall always incur failure to shoot at penalties and miss penalties in the event that a competitor fails to activate the mechanism that controls the target movement.  9.9.2 Moving targets shall always incur failure to shoot at penalties and miss penalties in the event that a competitor fails to activate the mechanism that controls the target movement. 
9.9.3 Scoring Appearing and Disappearing Targets-Any bullet hole on a target that turns, appears or disappears shall score the highest zone hit.  9.9.3 Scoring Appearing and Disappearing Targets-Any bullet hole on a target that turns, appears or disappears shall score the highest zone hit. 
9.10 Official Time  9.10 Official Time 
9.10.1 Only the timing device operated by the Range Officer shall be used to record the elapsed time of the competitors. If a timing device proves to be faulty, a competitor whose attempt cannot be credited with an accurate time will be required to re-shoot the stage.  9.10.1 Only the timing device operated by the Range Officer shall be used to record the elapsed time of the competitors. If a timing device proves to be faulty, a competitor whose attempt cannot be credited with an accurate time will be required to re-shoot the stage. 
  9.11 Scoring Programs 
  9.11.1 The scoring programs approved by IPSC are the Match Scoring System (MSS) and Windows Match Scoring System (WinMSS). No other scoring program shall be used for any IPSC sanctioned competition without the prior written approval of the Regional Director of the host region (Also see Section 9.7). 
SECTION 10-Penalties  SECTION 10-Penalties 
10.1 Procedural Penalties  10.1 Procedural Penalties 
10.1.1 Procedural penalties are applied where the competitor has failed to comply with the procedures specified in the stage briefing. The Range Officer imposing such procedural penalties shall determine the number of penalties and the reason why they were imposed. This information should be clearly recorded on the score sheet.  10.1.1 Procedural penalties are applied where the competitor has failed to comply with the procedures specified in the stage briefing. The Range Officer imposing such procedural penalties shall determine the number of penalties and the reason why they were imposed. This information should be clearly recorded on the score sheet. 
10.1.2 Procedural penalties shall be assessed at twice the value of a single maximum available scoring hit on an IPSC paper target as stated in Appendix H. If the maximum available scoring hit on an IPSC paper target is 5 points, each procedural penalty shall be minus -10 points.  10.1.2 Procedural penalties shall be assessed at twice the value of a single maximum available scoring hit on an IPSC paper target as stated in Appendix H. If the maximum available scoring hit on an IPSC paper target is 5 points, each procedural penalty shall be minus -10 points. 
10.1.3 A competitor, who disputes the application or number of procedural penalties, may appeal the decision to the Chief Range Officer and then to the Range Master. If the dispute is not settled, the competitor may appeal to the Arbitration Committee.  10.1.3 A competitor, who disputes the application or number of procedural penalties, may appeal the decision to the Chief Range Officer and then to the Range Master. If the dispute is not settled, the competitor may appeal to the Arbitration Committee. 
10.1.4 The following are some examples of circumstances where procedural penalties may be issued:  10.1.4 The following are some examples of circumstances where procedural penalties may be issued: 
10.1.4.1 If a competitor allows any part of their body to touch the ground beyond a fault line or charge line and fires shots while faulting, the competitor shall receive 1 procedural penalty. However, if the Range Officer determines that the competitor has received a significant advantage while faulting the line, the competitor will be assessed one procedural penalty for each shot fired while faulting instead of the single penalty. When engaging targets from the prone position, only the lower arms below the elbow may extend over the line. A penalty for each shot fired will be issued where a competitor faults a line in this manner. There shall be no penalty when a competitor faults a line but does not fire any shots.  10.1.4.1 If a competitor allows any part of their body to touch the ground beyond a fault line or charge line and fires shots while faulting, the competitor shall receive 1 procedural penalty. However, if the Range Officer determines that the competitor has received a significant advantage while faulting the line, the competitor will be assessed one procedural penalty for each shot fired while faulting instead of the single penalty. When engaging targets from the prone position, only the lower arms below the elbow may extend over the line. A penalty for each shot fired will be issued where a competitor faults a line in this manner. There shall be no penalty when a competitor faults a line but does not fire any shots. 
10.1.4.2 Where multiple penalties are assessed in the above cases, they shall not exceed the maximum number of scoring hits that can be attained by the competitor. For example, a competitor who gains an advantage while faulting a fault line or charge line where 4 metal targets are visible shall receive a procedural penalty for each shot fired while faulting to a maximum of 4 procedural penalties regardless of the number of shots actually fired.  10.1.4.2 Where multiple penalties are assessed in the above cases, they shall not exceed the maximum number of scoring hits that can be attained by the competitor. For example, a competitor who gains an advantage while faulting a fault line or charge line where 4 metal targets are visible shall receive a procedural penalty for each shot fired while faulting to a maximum of 4 procedural penalties regardless of the number of shots actually fired. 
10.1.4.3 If a competitor fails to comply with a procedure specified in the stage briefing, the competitor shall incur a single procedural penalty for each occurrence. For example a competitor, who uses the weak hand to open a door, where the stage briefing requires that the strong hand be used, shall receive one procedural penalty.  10.1.4.3 If a competitor fails to comply with a procedure specified in the stage briefing, the competitor shall incur a single procedural penalty for each occurrence. For example a competitor, who uses the weak hand to open a door, where the stage briefing requires that the strong hand be used, shall receive one procedural penalty. 
10.1.4.4 A competitor who fails to comply with a mandatory reload as per 1.1.5 shall incur one procedural penalty for each shot fired in the component string after the point where the reload was required until a reload is performed.  10.1.4.4 A competitor who fails to comply with a mandatory reload as per 1.1.5 shall incur one procedural penalty for each shot fired in the component string after the point where the reload was required until a reload is performed. 
10.1.4.5 If a competitor is unable to fully execute any part of a course of fire as a result of incapacity, or previous injury the competitor may request a penalty in lieu of the stated course requirement. It is permissible in this case to apply a penalty by deducting 20% of the competitor's target points as shot. This penalty should be specified prior to the start of the stage and shall be at the option of the Match Director.  10.1.4.5 If a competitor is unable to fully execute any part of a course of fire as a result of incapacity, or previous injury the competitor may request a penalty in lieu of the stated course requirement. It is permissible in this case to apply a penalty by deducting 20% of the competitor's target points as shot. This penalty should be specified prior to the start of the stage and shall be at the option of the Match Director. 
10.1.4.6 In a Cooper Tunnel, if a competitor disturbs one or more pieces of the overhead material and the material falls, the competitor shall receive a procedural penalty for each piece of overhead material that falls. Overhead material that falls as a result of the competitor bumping or striking the uprights or as a result of muzzle gases or recoil shall not be penalized.  10.1.4.6 In a Cooper Tunnel, if a competitor disturbs one or more pieces of the overhead material and the material falls, the competitor shall receive a procedural penalty for each piece of overhead material that falls. Overhead material that falls as a result of the competitor bumping or striking the uprights or as a result of muzzle gases or recoil shall not be penalized. 
10.1.4.7 If a competitor is creeping (movement of the hands towards the handgun) or physically moving to a more advantageous position after the "Standby" command and prior to the start signal, the competitor shall incur one procedural penalty.  10.1.4.7 If a competitor is creeping (movement of the hands towards the handgun) or physically moving to a more advantageous position after the "Standby" command and prior to the start signal, the competitor shall incur one procedural penalty. 
10.1.4.8 If a competitor fails to shoot at any target with at least one round, the competitor shall incur one procedural penalty (per target) for failing to shoot at a target as well as the appropriate number of misses.  10.1.4.8 If a competitor fails to shoot at any target with at least one round, the competitor shall incur one procedural penalty per target plus the appropriate number of misses, except where the provisions of Rule 9.9.1.2 apply. 
10.1.4.9 If a course of fire stipulates strong or weak hand only, the competitor will not be penalized for using both hands to safely correct a malfunction, including a reload if it is necessary to help clear the malfunction, but will be issued one procedural for each of the following:  10.1.4.9 If a course of fire stipulates strong or weak hand only, the competitor will not be penalized for using both hands to safely correct a malfunction, including a reload if it is necessary to help clear the malfunction, but will be issued one procedural for each of the following: 
-Faults by touching the firearm with the other hand.  -Faults by touching the firearm with the other hand. 
-Shots fired while using both hands or while using the "other" hand to support the shooting arm or wrist shall be assessed as one procedural per shot fired.  -Shots fired while using both hands or while using the "other" hand to support the shooting arm or wrist shall be assessed as one procedural per shot fired. 
-Shots fired while using the "other" hand to increase stability or stance, by placing it on a barricade, prop, or any other item, shall be assessed as one procedural per shot fired.  -Shots fired while using the "other" hand to increase stability or stance, by placing it on a barricade, prop, or any other item, shall be assessed as one procedural per shot fired. 
-Faults by using the other arm or hand to reload, or to disengage the safety.  -Faults by using the other arm or hand to reload, or to disengage the safety. 
10.1.4.10 In the event that a competitor's handgun falls or drops during the holster test portion of a course of fire and inside the designated area, the RO will stop the competitor, retrieve the handgun and replace it in the competitor's holster. The competitor shall be allowed to continue in the match or tournament but the scores for the holster test stage shall be recorded as zero. In the event that the competitor touches the holstered handgun during the holster retention test and inside the designated area, the competitor shall be issued one procedural penalty and no further action on the part of the Range Official is required. Note that Rule 10.3.4 does not apply to a dropped unloaded handgun during a holster test while inside the designated area.  10.1.4.10 In the event that a competitor's handgun falls or drops during the holster test portion of a course of fire and inside the designated area, the RO will stop the competitor, retrieve the handgun and replace it in the competitor's holster. The competitor shall be allowed to continue in the match or tournament but the scores for the holster test stage shall be recorded as zero. In the event that the competitor touches the holstered handgun during the holster retention test and inside the designated area, the competitor shall be issued one procedural penalty and no further action on the part of the Range Official is required. Note that Rule 10.3.4 does not apply to a dropped unloaded handgun during a holster test while inside the designated area. 
10.1.4.11 When Standards, Classifiers, Level I and Level II Matches restrict competitors by use of shooting boxes, once a competitor leaves a shooting box, they may return to it and properly shoot at the targets provided that they can do so safely and have not commenced firing from any subsequent position. However, course procedures may prohibit re-engagement and a procedural penalty per shoot fired will apply if re-engagement procedures are not followed.  10.1.4.11 When Standards, Classifiers, Level I and Level II Matches restrict competitors by use of shooting boxes, a competitor who leaves a shooting box, may return to it and properly shoot at the targets, provided that they can do so safely and have not commenced firing from any subsequent position. However, if written stage briefings prohibit such actions, a procedural penalty per shot fired will apply. 
10.2 Match Disqualification-General Regulations  10.2 Match Disqualification-General Regulations 
10.2.1 A match disqualification will be imposed on a competitor who commits a safety infraction or other prohibited activity during an IPSC competition. A match disqualification applies to one particular match. A competitor disqualified from a match for a safety infraction shall be prohibited from attempting any remaining courses of fire in the same match regardless of the schedule or physical layout for that match. This includes the portions of any tournament that includes shotgun and rifle matches. All complete match scores for previous attempts shall stand but any incomplete or partial match scores must be removed from match scores.  10.2.1 A match disqualification will be imposed on a competitor who commits a safety infraction or other prohibited activity during an IPSC competition. A match disqualification applies to one particular match. A competitor disqualified from a match for a safety infraction shall be prohibited from attempting any remaining courses of fire in the same match regardless of the schedule or physical layout for that match. This includes the portions of any tournament that includes shotgun and rifle matches. All complete match scores for previous attempts shall stand but any incomplete or partial match scores must be removed from match scores. 
10.2.2 When a match disqualification is issued, the Range Officer shall ensure that the reasons for the disqualification as well as the time and date are clearly recorded on the competitor's score sheet. The Range Master shall be notified immediately.  10.2.2 When a match disqualification is issued, the Range Officer shall ensure that the reasons for the disqualification as well as the time and date are clearly recorded on the competitor's score sheet. The Range Master shall be notified immediately. 
10.2.3 A competitor who commits a safety infraction prior to the posting of the final match results shall be disqualified and that competitor's scores shall be removed from the match scores. The exception shall be a disqualification for a safety infraction where a competitor is participating in a shoot-off or side match after the competitor has completed the match. In this case the disqualification shall not be applied to the completed match scores however the competitor shall not be allowed to compete in any further tournament activities (i.e. shotgun or rifle match).  10.2.3 A competitor who commits a safety infraction prior to the posting of the final match results shall be disqualified and that competitor's scores shall be removed from the match scores. The exception shall be a disqualification for a safety infraction where a competitor is participating in a shoot-off or side match after the competitor has completed the match. In this case the disqualification shall not be applied to the completed match scores however the competitor shall not be allowed to compete in any further tournament activities (i.e. shotgun or rifle match). 
10.3 Match Disqualification for Safety Infractions-A match disqualification shall be issued for any of the following infractions:  10.3 Match Disqualification for Safety Infractions-A match disqualification shall be issued for any of the following infractions: 
10.3.1 Accidental Discharge-A discharge is defined as a bullet that has passed through the barrel of a competitor's firearm and shall be defined as an accidental discharge as follows:  10.3.1 Accidental Discharge-A discharge is defined as a bullet that has passed through the barrel of a competitor's firearm and shall be defined as an accidental discharge as follows: 
10.3.1.1 Any shot fired outside the confines of either the backstop or side berms or which strikes the ground within 3 meters (6.5 feet) of the competitor or any other direction deemed unsafe by the host organization and specified in the stage briefing. In the event of an accidental discharge, the Range Officer shall stop the competitor as soon as possible. Any shot fired at a target closer than 3 meters (6.5 feet) shall not be deemed an accidental discharge.  10.3.1.1 Any shot fired outside the confines of either the backstop or side berms or which strikes the ground within 3 meters (10 feet) of the competitor or any other direction deemed unsafe by the host organization and specified in the stage briefing. In the event of an accidental discharge, the Range Officer shall stop the competitor as soon as possible. Any shot fired at a target closer than 3 meters (10 feet) shall not be deemed an accidental discharge. 
10.3.2 Unsafe Gun Handling-A discharge is defined as a bullet that has passed through the barrel of a competitor's firearm and may be defined as unsafe gun handling as follows:  10.3.2 Unsafe Gun Handling-A discharge is defined as a bullet that has passed through the barrel of a competitor's firearm and may be defined as unsafe gun handling as follows: 
10.3.2.1 Any discharge prior to commencement or while loading, reloading, unloading or during remedial action in the case of a malfunction.  10.3.2.1 Any discharge prior to commencement or while loading, reloading, unloading or during remedial action in the case of a malfunction or while transferring a loaded handgun between hands. 
10.3.2.2 Any discharge during movement except while engaging targets.  10.3.2.2 Any discharge during movement except while engaging targets. 
10.3.2.3 Any discharge as described above, will cause the Range Officer to prevent further action on the part of the competitor as soon as possible.  10.3.2.3 Any discharge as described above, will cause the Range Officer to prevent further action on the part of the competitor as soon as possible. 
10.3.2.4 When it can be established that the cause of the discharge is due to the actual breakage of a part of the firearm and the competitor has fulfilled all normal safety requirements, match disqualification will not be invoked. The competitor's scores for that stage shall be zero. The firearm must be immediately presented for inspection to the Range Master or his delegate, who will inspect the firearm and carry out any tests necessary to establish that an actual breakage of a part caused the discharge. A competitor may not later protest a match disqualification for an accidental discharge due to the actual breakage of a part if they fail to present the firearm for immediate inspection before leaving the course of fire.  10.3.2.4 When it can be established that the cause of the discharge is due to the actual breakage of a part of the firearm and the competitor has fulfilled all normal safety requirements, match disqualification will not be invoked. The competitor's scores for that stage shall be zero. The firearm must be immediately presented for inspection to the Range Master or his delegate, who will inspect the firearm and carry out any tests necessary to establish that an actual breakage of a part caused the discharge. A competitor may not later protest a match disqualification for an accidental discharge due to the actual breakage of a part if they fail to present the firearm for immediate inspection before leaving the course of fire. 
10.3.2.5 In the event of a discharge following the Range Officer's declaration "Gun Clear", the Range Officer shall require the competitor to "Unload and Show Clear" and ensure that the firearm is safe. No further action is required. In the event that the discharge was in an unsafe direction or as defined in 10.3.1 above, the regulations for that section shall apply.  10.3.2.5 In the event of a discharge following the Range Officer's declaration "Gun Clear", the Range Officer shall require the competitor to "Unload and Show Clear" and ensure that the firearm is safe. No further action is required. In the event that the discharge was in an unsafe direction or as defined in 10.3.1 above, the regulations for that section shall apply. 
10.3.3 Handling a handgun at anytime except when in a designated safety area or on the firing line under the supervision of a Range Officer.  10.3.3 Handling a handgun at anytime except when in a designated safety area or on the firing line under the supervision of a Range Officer. 
10.3.4 If at any time during the course of fire, a competitor allows the muzzle to point rearwards, that is further than 90 degrees from the median intercept of the backstop, or in the case of no backstop, allows the muzzle to point up range, whether the firearm is loaded or not.  10.3.4 If at any time during the course of fire, a competitor allows the muzzle to point rearwards, that is further than 90 degrees from the median intercept of the backstop, or in the case of no backstop, allows the muzzle to point up range, whether the firearm is loaded or not. 
10.3.5 If at any time during the course of fire, or while loading or unloading, a competitor drops his handgun or causes it to fall, loaded or not, except as follows:  10.3.5 If at any time during the course of fire, or while loading or unloading, a competitor drops his handgun or causes it to fall, loaded or not, except as follows: 
10.3.5.1 During a holster test in a course of fire before the handgun has been loaded.  10.3.5.1 During a holster test in a course of fire before the handgun has been loaded. 
10.3.5.2 A competitor who, for any reason during a course of fire, safely and intentionally places the handgun on the ground or other stable object shall not be disqualified provided:  10.3.5.2 A competitor who, for any reason during a course of fire, safely and intentionally places the handgun on the ground or other stable object shall not be disqualified provided: 
-The handgun is in the ready condition as specified in 8.1, or  -The handgun is in the ready condition as specified in 8.1, or 
-A self-loading pistol has the magazine removed and the slide locked open, or  -A self-loading pistol has the magazine removed and the slide locked open, or 
-A revolver has the cylinder open and empty, and  -A revolver has the cylinder open and empty, and 
-The competitor maintains constant physical contact with the handgun, until it is placed firmly and securely on the ground or another stable object, and  -The competitor maintains constant physical contact with the handgun, until it is placed firmly and securely on the ground or another stable object, and 
-The competitor remains within arms length of the handgun at all times, and  -The competitor remains within arms length of the handgun at all times, and 
-The provisions of rule 10.3.4 are fully observed.  -The provisions of rule 10.3.4 are fully observed. 
10.3.6 Holstering or un-holstering a handgun within the confines of a tunnel.  10.3.6 Holstering or un-holstering a handgun within the confines of a tunnel. 
10.3.7 Allowing the muzzle of a loaded handgun to point at any part of the competitor's body during a course of fire (i.e. sweeping) other than while drawing or re-holstering.  10.3.7 Allowing the muzzle of a handgun to point at any part of the competitor's body during a course of fire (i.e. sweeping) other than while drawing or re-holstering. 
10.3.8 Allowing the muzzle of a loaded handgun to point rearward beyond a radius of 1 meter (3 feet) from a competitor's feet during drawing or re-holstering.  10.3.8 Allowing the muzzle of a loaded handgun to point rearward beyond a radius of 1 meter (3 feet) from a competitor's feet during drawing or re-holstering. 
10.3.9 Wearing or using more than one handgun at any point in time during a competition.  10.3.9 Wearing or using more than one handgun at any point in time during a competition. 
10.3.10 Failure to keep the finger outside the trigger guard while clearing a malfunction where the competitor clearly lowers the firearm down from aiming at targets.  10.3.10 Failure to keep the finger outside the trigger guard while clearing a malfunction where the competitor clearly lowers the firearm down from aiming at targets. 
10.3.11 Failure to keep the finger outside the trigger guard during loading or unloading.  10.3.11 Failure to keep the finger outside the trigger guard during loading or unloading. 
10.3.12 Failure to keep the finger outside the trigger guard during movement in accordance with section 8.5.  10.3.12 Failure to keep the finger outside the trigger guard during movement in accordance with section 8.5. 
10.3.13 Holstering a loaded handgun, in any of the following conditions:  10.3.13 Holstering a loaded handgun, in any of the following conditions: 
10.3.13.1 A single action self-loading pistol with the safety not applied.  10.3.13.1 A single action self-loading pistol with the safety not applied. 
10.3.13.2 A double action or selective action pistol with the hammer cocked and the safety not applied.  10.3.13.2 A double action or selective action pistol with the hammer cocked and the safety not applied. 
10.3.13.3 A revolver with the hammer cocked.  10.3.13.3 A revolver with the hammer cocked. 
10.3.14 Handling live or dummy ammunition, loaded magazines or loaded speedloading devices in a Safety Area.  10.3.14 Handling live or dummy ammunition (including practice or training rounds, "spring caps" and empty cases), loaded magazines or loaded speed loaders in a Safety Area, or failing to comply with 2.4.1. 
10.3.15 Having a loaded handgun other than when specifically ordered to by the Range Officer. Firearms shall be loaded only on the firing line and only when directed to do so by the Range Officer. A loaded handgun is defined as a gun having a live round in the chamber or having a live round in a magazine inserted in the gun.  10.3.15 Having a loaded handgun other than when specifically ordered to by the Range Officer. Firearms shall be loaded only on the firing line and only when directed to do so by the Range Officer. A loaded handgun is defined as a gun having a live round in the chamber or having a live round in a magazine inserted in the gun. 
10.3.16 Retrieving a dropped handgun outside a course of fire. Dropping an unloaded firearm is not an infraction. The competitor shall notify a match official who shall assist the competitor and supervise the safe retrieval of the firearm.  10.3.16 Retrieving a dropped handgun outside a course of fire. Dropping an unloaded firearm is not an infraction. The competitor shall notify a match official who shall assist the competitor and supervise the safe retrieval of the firearm. 
10.4 Match Disqualification-Unsportsmanlike Conduct  10.4 Match Disqualification-Unsportsmanlike Conduct 
10.4.1 Disqualification from the competition will be invoked in the event of gross or repeated unsportsmanlike behaviour. The Range Master must be notified immediately.  10.4.1 Competitors shall be disqualified from a competition for conduct which a Match Official deems to be unsportsmanlike. Examples of unsportsmanlike conduct include, but are not limited to, cheating, dishonesty, failing to comply with the reasonable directions of a Match Official, or any behavior likely to bring the sport into disrepute. 
10.4.2 The range officials shall have complete authority over all persons on the range. A competitor who fails to obey the officials' instructions and directions or behaviour deemed likely to bring the sport into disrepute may lead to disqualification from the match and banishment from the range.  10.4.2 The range officials shall have complete authority over all persons on the range. A competitor who fails to obey the officials' instructions and directions or behavior deemed likely to bring the sport into disrepute may lead to disqualification from the match and banishment from the range. 
10.4.3 Repeated contravention of the rules of the range or stage briefing will be considered as unsportsmanlike conduct.  10.4.3 Repeated contravention of the rules of the range or stage briefing will be considered as unsportsmanlike conduct. 
10.4.4 A competitor who intentionally removes or causes the loss of eye or hearing protection to gain a competitive advantage shall be issued a match disqualification for unsportsmanlike conduct.  10.4.4 A competitor who intentionally removes or causes the loss of eye or hearing protection to gain a competitive advantage shall be issued a match disqualification for unsportsmanlike conduct. 
10.5 Match Disqualification-Prohibited Substances  10.5 Match Disqualification-Prohibited Substances 
10.5.1 All competitors and match officials at IPSC competitions are required to be in complete control both mentally and physically during IPSC competition.  10.5.1 All competitors and match officials at IPSC competitions are required to be in complete control both mentally and physically during IPSC competition. 
10.5.2 IPSC considers the abuse of alcoholic products, non-prescription and non-essential drugs and the use of illegal or performance enhancing drugs, irrespective of how they are taken or administered, to be an extremely serious offence.  10.5.2 IPSC considers the abuse of alcoholic products, non-prescription and non-essential drugs and the use of illegal or performance enhancing drugs, irrespective of how they are taken or administered, to be an extremely serious offence. 
10.5.3 Except when used for medicinal purposes, competitors and officials at competitions must not be affected by drugs (including alcohol) of any sort during competition. Any person, who in the opinion of the Range Master is visibly under the influence of any of the items described above, will be disqualified from the competition and may be required to leave the range.  10.5.3 Except when used for medicinal purposes, competitors and officials at competitions must not be affected by drugs (including alcohol) of any sort during competition. Any person, who in the opinion of the Range Master is visibly under the influence of any of the items described above, will be disqualified from the competition and may be required to leave the range. 
10.5.4 IPSC reserves the right to prohibit any general or specific substances and to introduce tests for the presence of these substances at any time.  10.5.4 IPSC reserves the right to prohibit any general or specific substances and to introduce tests for the presence of these substances at any time. 
SECTION 11-Arbitration & Interpretation of Rules  SECTION 11-Arbitration & Interpretation of Rules 
11.1 General Principles  11.1 General Principles 
11.1.1 Administration-Occasional disputes are inevitable in any competitive activity governed by rules. It is recognized that at the more significant levels of competition, emotions run high, and the outcome is much more important to the individual competitor. However, effective match administration and planning will prevent most if not all disputes.  11.1.1 Administration-Occasional disputes are inevitable in any competitive activity governed by rules. It is recognized that at the more significant levels of competition, the outcome is much more important to the individual competitor. However, effective match administration and planning will prevent most if not all disputes. 
11.1.2 Access-Protests may be submitted for arbitration in accordance with the following sections for any matter except the actual scoring of targets. However, protests arising from a disqualification for a safety infraction will only be accepted to determine whether or not an infraction as described by the range official was in fact unsafe. The commission of the infraction may not be protested.  11.1.2 Access-Protests may be submitted for arbitration in accordance with the following sections for any matter except the actual scoring of targets. However, protests arising from a disqualification for a safety infraction will only be accepted to determine whether or not an infraction as described by the range official was in fact unsafe. The commission of the infraction may not be protested. 
11.1.3 Appeals-Decisions are made initially by the Range Officer. If the complainant disagrees with a decision, the Chief Range Officer for the stage or area in question should summoned and asked to rule. If a disagreement still exists, the Range Master must be summoned and asked to rule.  11.1.3 Appeals-Decisions are made initially by the Range Officer. If the complainant disagrees with a decision, the Chief Range Officer for the stage or area in question should summoned and asked to rule. If a disagreement still exists, the Range Master must be summoned and asked to rule. 
11.1.4 Appeal to Committee-Should the complainant continue to dispute the decision they may appeal to the Arbitration Committee by submitting a first party protest.  11.1.4 Appeal to Committee-Should the complainant continue to dispute the decision they may appeal to the Arbitration Committee by submitting a first party protest. 
11.1.5 Retain Evidence-A complainant may inform the Range Master of their wish to present the case to the Arbitration Committee and may request that the officials retain any and all relevant documents pending the hearing.  11.1.5 Retain Evidence-A complainant may inform the Range Master of their wish to present the case to the Arbitration Committee and may request that the officials retain any and all relevant documents pending the hearing. 
11.1.6 Preparing the Protest-The complainant is responsible for the preparation and delivery of the written submission, together with the appropriate fee. Both must be submitted to the Range Master within the specified period of time.  11.1.6 Preparing the Protest-The complainant is responsible for the preparation and delivery of the written submission, together with the appropriate fee. Both must be submitted to the Range Master within the specified period of time. 
11.1.7 Match Official's Duty-Any match official in receipt of a request for arbitration shall, without delay, inform the Range Master and shall note the identities of all witnesses and officials involved and pass this information on to the Range Master.  11.1.7 Match Official's Duty-Any match official in receipt of a request for arbitration shall, without delay, inform the Range Master and shall note the identities of all witnesses and officials involved and pass this information on to the Range Master. 
11.1.8 Match Director's Duty-The Match Director will, upon receiving the report of the pending arbitration from the Range Master, will convene the Arbitration Committee in a place of privacy as soon as convenient.  11.1.8 Match Director's Duty-The Match Director will, upon receiving the report of the pending arbitration from the Range Master, will convene the Arbitration Committee in a place of privacy as soon as convenient. 
11.2 Composition of Committee  11.2 Composition of Committee 
11.2.1 Arbitration Committee-Composition of an Arbitration Committee should be:  11.2.1 Arbitration Committee-At Level III or higher competitions the composition of the Arbitration Committee shall be subject to the following rules: 
11.2.1.1 IPSC President or their appointee as Chairman of the committee with no vote.  11.2.1.1 The IPSC President or his delegate or a certified Range Official appointed by the Match Director (in that order) shall serve as Chairman of the committee with no vote. 
11.2.1.2 Three experienced arbitrators appointed by the President or the Match Director with one vote each.  11.2.1.2 Three arbitrators appointed by the IPSC President or his delegate or by the Match Director (in that order), with one vote each. 
11.2.1.3 When possible arbitrators should shoot the entire match and should be IROA Officials.  11.2.1.3 When possible arbitrators should have shot the entire match and be certified Officials. 
  11.2.1.4 Under no circumstances shall the Chairman or any member of an Arbitration Committee be a party to the original decision or subsequent appeals which lead to the arbitration 
11.3 Time Limits & Sequences  11.3 Time Limits & Sequences 
11.3.1 Time Limit for Arbitration Request-Written requests for arbitration must be submitted to the Range Master within one hour of the disputed incident or occurrence. Failure to present the required documentation within the time specified will render the request invalid and no further action will be taken.  11.3.1 Time Limit for Arbitration Request-Written requests for arbitration must be submitted to the Range Master within one hour of the disputed incident or occurrence. Failure to present the required documentation within the time specified will render the request invalid and no further action will be taken. 
11.3.2 Decision Time Limit-The Committee must reach a decision within 24 hours of the request for arbitration or before the final match scores are posted, which ever comes first. If the Committee fails to render a decision within the prescribed period, a first party complainant shall automatically succeed and a third party complainant (see 11.7) shall automatically fail in their arbitration request. Any late decision will result in the return of the fee to the complainant.  11.3.2 Decision Time Limit-The Committee must reach a decision within 24 hours of the request for arbitration or before the final match scores are posted, which ever comes first. If the Committee fails to render a decision within the prescribed period, a first party complainant shall automatically succeed and a third party complainant (see 11.7) shall automatically fail in their arbitration request. Any late decision will result in the return of the fee to the complainant. 
11.4 Fees  11.4 Fees 
11.4.1 Protest Fee-For International Matches, the protest fee to enable a competitor to go to Arbitration shall be $100.00 (U.S. funds) or local equivalent. The protest fee for other matches may be set by the Match Organizers, but may not exceed $100 (U.S. funds).  11.4.1 Protest Fee-For Level III or higher competitions, the protest fee to enable a competitor to appeal to Arbitration shall be US$100.00 or equivalent in local currency. The protest fee for other matches may be set by the Match Organizers, but shall not exceed US$100 or equivalent in local currency. 
11.4.2 Protest Fees-If the Committee's decision is to uphold the protest, the fee paid will be returned. If the committee's decision is to deny the protest, the fee paid will be held forfeit. Forfeited protest fees along with the submission and decision for National events will be forwarded the National Range Officers Institute (NROI). Forfeited protest fees along with the submission and decision for International events (Level III and higher) will be forwarded to the International Range Officers Association (IROA).  11.4.2 Protest Fees-If the Committee's decision is to uphold the protest, the fee paid will be returned. If the Committee's decision is to deny the protest, the fee paid will be held forfeit by the Match Organizers. Decisions for Regional events will be forwarded to the National Range Officers Institute (NROI). Decisions for International events (Level III and higher) will be forwarded to the International Range Officers Association (IROA). 
11.5 Rules of Procedure  11.5 Rules of Procedure 
11.5.1 Committee's Duty and Procedure-The Committee will study the written submission and retain on behalf of the organizers the monies paid by the complainant until a decision has been reached.  11.5.1 Committee's Duty and Procedure-The Committee will study the written submission and retain on behalf of the organizers the monies paid by the complainant until a decision has been reached. 
11.5.2 Submissions-The Committee will then require the complainant to personally give further details of the submission and may question him/her on any point relevant to the dispute.  11.5.2 Submissions-The Committee will then require the complainant to personally give further details of the submission and may question him/her on any point relevant to the dispute. 
11.5.3 Hearing-The complainant will then be asked to withdraw while the Committee hears further evidence.  11.5.3 Hearing-The complainant will then be asked to withdraw while the Committee hears further evidence. 
11.5.4 Witnesses-The Committee will then hear match officials as well as any other witnesses involved in the dispute. The Committee will examine all evidence submitted.  11.5.4 Witnesses-The Committee will then hear match officials as well as any other witnesses involved in the dispute. The Committee will examine all evidence submitted. 
11.5.5 Questions-The Committee may question witnesses and officials on any point relevant to the dispute.  11.5.5 Questions-The Committee may question witnesses and officials on any point relevant to the dispute. 
11.5.6 Opinions-Committee members will refrain from expressing any opinion or verdict while a dispute in progress.  11.5.6 Opinions-Committee members will refrain from expressing any opinion or verdict while a dispute in progress. 
11.5.7 View Area-The Committee may view any range or area related to the dispute and require any person or official they regard as useful to the process to accompany them.  11.5.7 View Area-The Committee may view any range or area related to the dispute and require any person or official they regard as useful to the process to accompany them. 
11.5.8 Undue Influence-Any person attempting to influence the members of the Committee in any way other than evidence may be subject to disciplinary action.  11.5.8 Undue Influence-Any person attempting to influence the members of the Committee in any way other than evidence may be subject to disciplinary action. 
11.5.9 Deliberation-When the Committee is satisfied that they are in possession of all information and evidence relevant to the dispute, they will deliberate privately and will reach their decision by majority vote.  11.5.9 Deliberation-When the Committee is satisfied that they are in possession of all information and evidence relevant to the dispute, they will deliberate privately and will reach their decision by majority vote. 
11.6 Verdict and Subsequent Action  11.6 Verdict and Subsequent Action 
11.6.1 Committee Decision-When a decision is reached by the Committee, they will summon the complainant, the official, and the Range Master to present their judgment.  11.6.1 Committee Decision-When a decision is reached by the Committee, they will summon the complainant, the official, and the Range Master to present their judgment. 
11.6.2 Implement Decision-It shall be the responsibility of the Range Master to implement the Committee's decision. The Range Master shall advise the appropriate match personnel who will post the decision in a place available to all competitors. The decision is not retroactive and will not affect any incidents prior to the decision.  11.6.2 Implement Decision-It shall be the responsibility of the Range Master to implement the Committee's decision. The Range Master shall advise the appropriate match personnel who will post the decision in a place available to all competitors. The decision is not retroactive and will not affect any incidents prior to the decision. 
11.6.3 Decision is Final-The decision of the Committee shall be final and may not be protested, unless in the opinion of the Range Master new evidence received after the decision warrants reconsideration.  11.6.3 Decision is Final-The decision of the Committee shall be final and may not be protested, unless in the opinion of the Range Master new evidence received after the decision warrants reconsideration. 
11.6.4 Minutes-Decisions of the Arbitration Committee shall be recorded and shall provide precedent for any similar and subsequent incident during that match.  11.6.4 Minutes-Decisions of the Arbitration Committee shall be recorded and shall provide precedent for any similar and subsequent incident during that match. 
11.7 Third Party Protests  11.7 Third Party Protests 
11.7.1 Appeals may also be submitted by other persons on a "third party protest" basis. In such cases, all provisions of this section shall otherwise remain in force.  11.7.1 Appeals may also be submitted by other persons on a "third party protest" basis. In such cases, all provisions of this section shall otherwise remain in force. 
11.8 Interpretation of Rules  11.8 Interpretation of Rules 
11.8.1 Interpretation of these rules and regulations is the responsibility of IPSC. The IROA offices will issue any required explanations and clarifications as necessary.  11.8.1 Interpretation of these rules and regulations is the responsibility of IPSC. The IROA offices will issue any required explanations and clarifications as necessary. 
11.8.2 Persons seeking clarification of any rule shall be required to submit their questions in writing, either by fax, letter or by email to IPSC.  11.8.2 Persons seeking clarification of any rule shall be required to submit their questions in writing, either by fax, letter or by email to IPSC. 
  11.8.3 All rule interpretations published by the IROA Executive on the IPSC website shall be deemed to be precedents and shall be applied to all IPSC sanctioned competitions commencing on or after seven (7) days from the date of publication. All such interpretations will be subject to ratification or modification at the next IPSC Assembly. 
11.9 Miscellaneous Matters  11.9 Miscellaneous Matters 
11.9.1 All appendices included herein shall form an integral part of these rules.  11.9.1 All appendices included herein shall form an integral part of these rules. 
11.9.2 English is the official language of IPSC. Should there be discrepancies between the English language version of these rules and versions presented in other languages, the English language version shall prevail.  11.9.2 English is the official language of IPSC. Should there be discrepancies between the English language version of these rules and versions presented in other languages, the English language version shall prevail. 
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